ovs−vsctl

NAME
SYNOPSIS
DESCRIPTION
OPTIONS
COMMANDS
EXAMPLES
CONFIGURATION COOKBOOK
EXIT STATUS
SEE ALSO

NAME

ovs−vsctl − utility for querying and configuring ovs−vswitchd

SYNOPSIS

ovs−vsctl [options] −− [options] command [args] [−− [options] command [args]]...

DESCRIPTION

The ovs−vsctl program configures ovs−vswitchd(8) by providing a high−level interface to its configuration database. See ovs−vswitchd.conf.db(5) for comprehensive documentation of the database schema.

ovs−vsctl connects to an ovsdb−server process that maintains an Open vSwitch configuration database. Using this connection, it queries and possibly applies changes to the database, depending on the supplied commands. Then, if it applied any changes, by default it waits until ovs−vswitchd has finished reconfiguring itself before it exits. (If you use ovs−vsctl when ovs−vswitchd is not running, use −−no−wait.)

ovs−vsctl can perform any number of commands in a single run, implemented as a single atomic transaction against the database.

The ovs−vsctl command line begins with global options (see OPTIONS below for details). The global options are followed by one or more commands. Each command should begin with −− by itself as a command-line argument, to separate it from the following commands. (The −− before the first command is optional.) The command itself starts with command-specific options, if any, followed by the command name and any arguments. See EXAMPLES below for syntax examples.

Linux VLAN Bridging Compatibility

The ovs−vsctl program supports the model of a bridge implemented by Open vSwitch, in which a single bridge supports ports on multiple VLANs. In this model, each port on a bridge is either a trunk port that potentially passes packets tagged with 802.1Q headers that designate VLANs or it is assigned a single implicit VLAN that is never tagged with an 802.1Q header.

For compatibility with software designed for the Linux bridge, ovs−vsctl also supports a model in which traffic associated with a given 802.1Q VLAN is segregated into a separate bridge. A special form of the add−br command (see below) creates a ‘‘fake bridge’’ within an Open vSwitch bridge to simulate this behavior. When such a ‘‘fake bridge’’ is active, ovs−vsctl will treat it much like a bridge separate from its ‘‘parent bridge,’’ but the actual implementation in Open vSwitch uses only a single bridge, with ports on the fake bridge assigned the implicit VLAN of the fake bridge of which they are members. (A fake bridge for VLAN 0 receives packets that have no 802.1Q tag or a tag with VLAN 0.)

OPTIONS

The following options affect the behavior ovs−vsctl as a whole. Some individual commands also accept their own options, which are given just before the command name. If the first command on the command line has options, then those options must be separated from the global options by −−.

−−db=server

Sets server as the database server that ovs−vsctl contacts to query or modify configuration. The default is unix:/usr/local/var/run/db.sock. server must take one of the following forms:

ssl:ip:port

The specified SSL port on the host at the given ip, which must be expressed as an IP address (not a DNS name). The −−private−key, −−certificate, and −−ca−cert options are mandatory when this form is used.

tcp:ip:port

Connect to the given TCP port on ip.

unix:file

Connect to the Unix domain server socket named file.

pssl:port[:ip]

Listen on the given SSL port for a connection. By default, connections are not bound to a particular local IP address, but specifying ip limits connections to those from the given ip. The −−private−key, −−certificate, and −−ca−cert options are mandatory when this form is used.

ptcp:port[:ip]

Listen on the given TCP port for a connection. By default, connections are not bound to a particular local IP address, but ip may be specified to listen only for connections to the given ip.

punix:file

Listen on the Unix domain server socket named file for a connection.

−−no−wait

Prevents ovs−vsctl from waiting for ovs−vswitchd to reconfigure itself according to the the modified database. This option should be used if ovs−vswitchd is not running; otherwise, ovs−vsctl will not exit until ovs−vswitchd starts.

This option has no effect if the commands specified do not change the database.

−−no−syslog

By default, ovs−vsctl logs its arguments and the details of any changes that it makes to the system log. This option disables this logging.

This option is equivalent to −−verbose=vsctl:syslog:warn.

−−oneline

Modifies the output format so that the output for each command is printed on a single line. New-line characters that would otherwise separate lines are printed as \n, and any instances of \ that would otherwise appear in the output are doubled. Prints a blank line for each command that has no output. This option does not affect the formatting of output from the list or find commands; see Table Formatting Options below.

−−dry−run

Prevents ovs−vsctl from actually modifying the database.

−t secs

−−timeout=secs

By default, or with a secs of 0, ovs−vsctl waits forever for a response from the database. This option limits runtime to approximately secs seconds. If the timeout expires, ovs−vsctl will exit with a SIGALRM signal. (A timeout would normally happen only if the database cannot be contacted, or if the system is overloaded.)

−−retry

Without this option, if ovs−vsctl connects outward to the database server (the default) then ovs−vsctl will try to connect once and exit with an error if the connection fails (which usually means that ovsdb−server is not running).

With this option, or if −−db specifies that ovs−vsctl should listen for an incoming connection from the database server, then ovs−vsctl will wait for a connection to the database forever.

Regardless of this setting, −−timeout always limits how long ovs−vsctl will wait.

Table Formatting Options

These options control the format of output from the list and find commands.

−f format

−−format=format

Sets the type of table formatting. The following types of format are available:

table

2-D text tables with aligned columns.

list (default)

A list with one column per line and rows separated by a blank line.

html

HTML tables.

csv

Comma-separated values as defined in RFC 4180.

json

JSON format as defined in RFC 4627. The output is a sequence of JSON objects, each of which corresponds to one table. Each JSON object has the following members with the noted values:

caption

The table’s caption. This member is omitted if the table has no caption.

headings

An array with one element per table column. Each array element is a string giving the corresponding column’s heading.

data

An array with one element per table row. Each element is also an array with one element per table column. The elements of this second-level array are the cells that constitute the table. Cells that represent OVSDB data or data types are expressed in the format described in the OVSDB specification; other cells are simply expressed as text strings.

−d format

−−data=format

Sets the formatting for cells within output tables. The following types of format are available:

string (default)

The simple format described in the Database Values section below.

bare

The simple format with punctuation stripped off: [] and {} are omitted around sets, maps, and empty columns, items within sets and maps are space-separated, and strings are never quoted. This format may be easier for scripts to parse.

json

JSON.

The json output format always outputs cells in JSON format, ignoring this option.

−−no−heading

This option suppresses the heading row that otherwise appears in the first row of table output.

−−pretty

By default, JSON in output is printed as compactly as possible. This option causes JSON in output to be printed in a more readable fashion. Members of objects and elements of arrays are printed one per line, with indentation.

This option does not affect JSON in tables, which is always printed compactly.

−−bare

Equivalent to −−format=list −−data=bare −−no−headings.

Public Key Infrastructure Options

−p privkey.pem

−−private−key=privkey.pem

Specifies a PEM file containing the private key used as ovs−vsctl’s identity for outgoing SSL connections.

−c cert.pem

−−certificate=cert.pem

Specifies a PEM file containing a certificate that certifies the private key specified on −p or −−private−key to be trustworthy. The certificate must be signed by the certificate authority (CA) that the peer in SSL connections will use to verify it.

−C cacert.pem

−−ca−cert=cacert.pem

Specifies a PEM file containing the CA certificate that ovs−vsctl should use to verify certificates presented to it by SSL peers. (This may be the same certificate that SSL peers use to verify the certificate specified on −c or −−certificate, or it may be a different one, depending on the PKI design in use.)

−C none

−−ca−cert=none

Disables verification of certificates presented by SSL peers. This introduces a security risk, because it means that certificates cannot be verified to be those of known trusted hosts.

−−bootstrap−ca−cert=cacert.pem

When cacert.pem exists, this option has the same effect as −C or −−ca−cert. If it does not exist, then ovs−vsctl will attempt to obtain the CA certificate from the SSL peer on its first SSL connection and save it to the named PEM file. If it is successful, it will immediately drop the connection and reconnect, and from then on all SSL connections must be authenticated by a certificate signed by the CA certificate thus obtained.

This option exposes the SSL connection to a man-in-the-middle attack obtaining the initial CA certificate, but it may be useful for bootstrapping.

This option is only useful if the SSL peer sends its CA certificate as part of the SSL certificate chain. The SSL protocol does not require the server to send the CA certificate, but ovsdb−server(8) can be configured to do so with the −−peer−ca−cert option.

This option is mutually exclusive with −C and −−ca−cert.

−−peer−ca−cert=peer-cacert.pem

Specifies a PEM file that contains one or more additional certificates to send to SSL peers. peer-cacert.pem should be the CA certificate used to sign ovs−vsctl’s own certificate, that is, the certificate specified on −c or −−certificate. If ovs−vsctl’s certificate is self-signed, then −−certificate and −−peer−ca−cert should specify the same file.

This option is not useful in normal operation, because the SSL peer must already have the CA certificate for the peer to have any confidence in ovs−vsctl’s identity. However, this offers a way for a new installation to bootstrap the CA certificate on its first SSL connection.

−v[spec]

−−verbose=[spec]

Sets logging levels. Without any spec, sets the log level for every module and facility to dbg. Otherwise, spec is a list of words separated by spaces or commas or colons, up to one from each category below:

A valid module name, as displayed by the vlog/list command on ovs−appctl(8), limits the log level change to the specified module.

syslog, console, or file, to limit the log level change to only to the system log, to the console, or to a file, respectively.

off, emer, err, warn, info, or dbg, to control the log level. Messages of the given severity or higher will be logged, and messages of lower severity will be filtered out. off filters out all messages. See ovs−appctl(8) for a definition of each log level.

Case is not significant within spec.

Regardless of the log levels set for file, logging to a file will not take place unless −−log−file is also specified (see below).

For compatibility with older versions of OVS, any is accepted as a word but has no effect.

−v

−−verbose

Sets the maximum logging verbosity level, equivalent to −−verbose=dbg.

−−log−file[=file]

Enables logging to a file. If file is specified, then it is used as the exact name for the log file. The default log file name used if file is omitted is /usr/local/var/log/openvswitch/ovs−vsctl.log.

COMMANDS

The commands implemented by ovs−vsctl are described in the sections below.

Open vSwitch Commands

These commands work with an Open vSwitch as a whole.

init

Initializes the Open vSwitch database, if it is empty. If the database has already been initialized, this command has no effect.

Any successful ovs−vsctl command automatically initializes the Open vSwitch database if it is empty. This command is provided to initialize the database without executing any other command.

show

Prints a brief overview of the database contents.

emer−reset

Reset the configuration into a clean state. It deconfigures OpenFlow controllers, OVSDB servers, and SSL, and deletes port mirroring, fail_mode, NetFlow, sFlow, and IPFIX configuration. This command also removes all other−config keys from all database records, except that other−config:hwaddr is preserved if it is present in a Bridge record. Other networking configuration is left as-is.

Bridge Commands

These commands examine and manipulate Open vSwitch bridges.

[−−may−exist] add−br bridge

Creates a new bridge named bridge. Initially the bridge will have no ports (other than bridge itself).

Without −−may−exist, attempting to create a bridge that exists is an error. With −−may−exist, this command does nothing if bridge already exists as a real bridge.

[−−may−exist] add−br bridge parent vlan

Creates a ‘‘fake bridge’’ named bridge within the existing Open vSwitch bridge parent, which must already exist and must not itself be a fake bridge. The new fake bridge will be on 802.1Q VLAN vlan, which must be an integer between 0 and 4095. Initially bridge will have no ports (other than bridge itself).

Without −−may−exist, attempting to create a bridge that exists is an error. With −−may−exist, this command does nothing if bridge already exists as a VLAN bridge under parent for vlan.

[−−if−exists] del−br bridge

Deletes bridge and all of its ports. If bridge is a real bridge, this command also deletes any fake bridges that were created with bridge as parent, including all of their ports.

Without −−if−exists, attempting to delete a bridge that does not exist is an error. With −−if−exists, attempting to delete a bridge that does not exist has no effect.

[−−real|−−fake] list−br

Lists all existing real and fake bridges on standard output, one per line. With −−real or −−fake, only bridges of that type are returned.

br−exists bridge

Tests whether bridge exists as a real or fake bridge. If so, ovs−vsctl exits successfully with exit code 0. If not, ovs−vsctl exits unsuccessfully with exit code 2.

br−to−vlan bridge

If bridge is a fake bridge, prints the bridge’s 802.1Q VLAN as a decimal integer. If bridge is a real bridge, prints 0.

br−to−parent bridge

If bridge is a fake bridge, prints the name of its parent bridge. If bridge is a real bridge, print bridge.

br−set−external−id bridge key [value]

Sets or clears an ‘‘external ID’’ value on bridge. These values are intended to identify entities external to Open vSwitch with which bridge is associated, e.g. the bridge’s identifier in a virtualization management platform. The Open vSwitch database schema specifies well-known key values, but key and value are otherwise arbitrary strings.

If value is specified, then key is set to value for bridge, overwriting any previous value. If value is omitted, then key is removed from bridge’s set of external IDs (if it was present).

For real bridges, the effect of this command is similar to that of a set or remove command in the external−ids column of the Bridge table. For fake bridges, it actually modifies keys with names prefixed by fake−bridge− in the Port table.

br−get−external−id bridge [key]

Queries the external IDs on bridge. If key is specified, the output is the value for that key or the empty string if key is unset. If key is omitted, the output is key=value, one per line, for each key-value pair.

For real bridges, the effect of this command is similar to that of a get command in the external−ids column of the Bridge table. For fake bridges, it queries keys with names prefixed by fake−bridge− in the Port table.

Port Commands

These commands examine and manipulate Open vSwitch ports. These commands treat a bonded port as a single entity.

list−ports bridge

Lists all of the ports within bridge on standard output, one per line. The local port bridge is not included in the list.

[−−may−exist] add−port bridge port [column[:key]=value]...

Creates on bridge a new port named port from the network device of the same name.

Optional arguments set values of column in the Port record created by the command. For example, tag=9 would make the port an access port for VLAN 9. The syntax is the same as that for the set command (see Database Commands below).

Without −−may−exist, attempting to create a port that exists is an error. With −−may−exist, this command does nothing if port already exists on bridge and is not a bonded port.

[−−fake−iface] add−bond bridge port iface... [column[:key]=value]...

Creates on bridge a new port named port that bonds together the network devices given as each iface. At least two interfaces must be named.

Optional arguments set values of column in the Port record created by the command. The syntax is the same as that for the set command (see Database Commands below).

With −−fake−iface, a fake interface with the name port is created. This should only be used for compatibility with legacy software that requires it.

Without −−may−exist, attempting to create a port that exists is an error. With −−may−exist, this command does nothing if port already exists on bridge and bonds together exactly the specified interfaces.

[−−if−exists] del−port [bridge] port

Deletes port. If bridge is omitted, port is removed from whatever bridge contains it; if bridge is specified, it must be the real or fake bridge that contains port.

Without −−if−exists, attempting to delete a port that does not exist is an error. With −−if−exists, attempting to delete a port that does not exist has no effect.

[−−if−exists] −−with−iface del−port [bridge] iface

Deletes the port named iface or that has an interface named iface. If bridge is omitted, the port is removed from whatever bridge contains it; if bridge is specified, it must be the real or fake bridge that contains the port.

Without −−if−exists, attempting to delete the port for an interface that does not exist is an error. With −−if−exists, attempting to delete the port for an interface that does not exist has no effect.

port−to−br port

Prints the name of the bridge that contains port on standard output.

Interface Commands

These commands examine the interfaces attached to an Open vSwitch bridge. These commands treat a bonded port as a collection of two or more interfaces, rather than as a single port.

list−ifaces bridge

Lists all of the interfaces within bridge on standard output, one per line. The local port bridge is not included in the list.

iface−to−br iface

Prints the name of the bridge that contains iface on standard output.

OpenFlow Controller Connectivity

ovs−vswitchd can perform all configured bridging and switching locally, or it can be configured to communicate with one or more external OpenFlow controllers. The switch is typically configured to connect to a primary controller that takes charge of the bridge’s flow table to implement a network policy. In addition, the switch can be configured to listen to connections from service controllers. Service controllers are typically used for occasional support and maintenance, e.g. with ovs−ofctl.

get−controller bridge

Prints the configured controller target.

del−controller bridge

Deletes the configured controller target.

set−controller bridge target...

Sets the configured controller target or targets. Each target may use any of the following forms:

ssl:ip[:port]

The specified SSL port (default: 6633) on the host at the given ip, which must be expressed as an IP address (not a DNS name). The −−private−key, −−certificate, and −−ca−cert options are mandatory when this form is used.

tcp:ip[:port]

The specified TCP port (default: 6633) on the host at the given ip, which must be expressed as an IP address (not a DNS name).

unix:file

The Unix domain server socket named file.

pssl:[port][:ip]

Listens for OpenFlow SSL connections on port (default: 6633). The −−private−key, −−certificate, and −−ca−cert options are mandatory when this form is used. By default, connections are not bound to a particular local IP address, but ip may be specified to listen only for connections to the given ip.

ptcp:[port][:ip]

Listens for OpenFlow TCP connections on port (default: 6633). By default, connections are not bound to a particular local IP address, but ip may be specified to listen only for connections to the given ip.

punix:file

Listens for OpenFlow connections on the Unix domain server socket named file.

Controller Failure Settings

When a controller is configured, it is, ordinarily, responsible for setting up all flows on the switch. Thus, if the connection to the controller fails, no new network connections can be set up. If the connection to the controller stays down long enough, no packets can pass through the switch at all.

If the value is standalone, or if neither of these settings is set, ovs−vswitchd will take over responsibility for setting up flows when no message has been received from the controller for three times the inactivity probe interval. In this mode, ovs−vswitchd causes the datapath to act like an ordinary MAC-learning switch. ovs−vswitchd will continue to retry connecting to the controller in the background and, when the connection succeeds, it discontinues its standalone behavior.

If this option is set to secure, ovs−vswitchd will not set up flows on its own when the controller connection fails.

get−fail−mode bridge

Prints the configured failure mode.

del−fail−mode bridge

Deletes the configured failure mode.

set−fail−mode bridge standalone|secure

Sets the configured failure mode.

Manager Connectivity

These commands manipulate the manager_options column in the Open_vSwitch table and rows in the Managers table. When ovsdb−server is configured to use the manager_options column for OVSDB connections (as described in INSTALL.Linux and in the startup scripts provided with Open vSwitch), this allows the administrator to use ovs−vsctl to configure database connections.

get−manager

Prints the configured manager(s).

del−manager

Deletes the configured manager(s).

set−manager target...

Sets the configured manager target or targets. Each target may use any of the following forms:

ssl:ip:port

The specified SSL port on the host at the given ip, which must be expressed as an IP address (not a DNS name). The −−private−key, −−certificate, and −−ca−cert options are mandatory when this form is used.

tcp:ip:port

Connect to the given TCP port on ip.

unix:file

Connect to the Unix domain server socket named file.

pssl:port[:ip]

Listen on the given SSL port for a connection. By default, connections are not bound to a particular local IP address, but specifying ip limits connections to those from the given ip. The −−private−key, −−certificate, and −−ca−cert options are mandatory when this form is used.

ptcp:port[:ip]

Listen on the given TCP port for a connection. By default, connections are not bound to a particular local IP address, but ip may be specified to listen only for connections to the given ip.

punix:file

Listen on the Unix domain server socket named file for a connection.

SSL Configuration

When ovs−vswitchd is configured to connect over SSL for management or controller connectivity, the following parameters are required:

private-key

Specifies a PEM file containing the private key used as the virtual switch’s identity for SSL connections to the controller.

certificate

Specifies a PEM file containing a certificate, signed by the certificate authority (CA) used by the controller and manager, that certifies the virtual switch’s private key, identifying a trustworthy switch.

ca-cert

Specifies a PEM file containing the CA certificate used to verify that the virtual switch is connected to a trustworthy controller.

These files are read only once, at ovs−vswitchd startup time. If their contents change, ovs−vswitchd must be killed and restarted.

These SSL settings apply to all SSL connections made by the virtual switch.

get−ssl

Prints the SSL configuration.

del−ssl

Deletes the current SSL configuration.

[−−bootstrap] set−ssl private-key certificate ca-cert

Sets the SSL configuration. The −−bootstrap option is described below.

CA Certificate Bootstrap

Ordinarily, all of the files named in the SSL configuration must exist when ovs−vswitchd starts. However, if the ca-cert file does not exist and the −−bootstrap option is given, then ovs−vswitchd will attempt to obtain the CA certificate from the controller on its first SSL connection and save it to the named PEM file. If it is successful, it will immediately drop the connection and reconnect, and from then on all SSL connections must be authenticated by a certificate signed by the CA certificate thus obtained.

This option exposes the SSL connection to a man-in-the-middle attack obtaining the initial CA certificate, but it may be useful for bootstrapping.

This option is only useful if the controller sends its CA certificate as part of the SSL certificate chain. The SSL protocol does not require the controller to send the CA certificate, but ovs−controller(8) can be configured to do so with the −−peer−ca−cert option.

Database Commands

These commands query and modify the contents of ovsdb tables. They are a slight abstraction of the ovsdb interface and as such they operate at a lower level than other ovs−vsctl commands.

Identifying Tables, Records, and Columns

Each of these commands has a table parameter to identify a table within the database. Many of them also take a record parameter that identifies a particular record within a table. The record parameter may be the UUID for a record, and many tables offer additional ways to identify records. Some commands also take column parameters that identify a particular field within the records in a table.

The following tables are currently defined:

Open_vSwitch

Global configuration for an ovs−vswitchd. This table contains exactly one record, identified by specifying . as the record name.

Bridge

Configuration for a bridge within an Open vSwitch. Records may be identified by bridge name.

Port

A bridge port. Records may be identified by port name.

Interface

A network device attached to a port. Records may be identified by name.

Flow_Table

Configuration for a particular OpenFlow flow table. Records may be identified by name.

QoS

Quality-of-service configuration for a Port. Records may be identified by port name.

Queue

Configuration for one queue within a QoS configuration. Records may only be identified by UUID.

Mirror

A port mirroring configuration attached to a bridge. Records may be identified by mirror name.

Controller

Configuration for an OpenFlow controller. A controller attached to a particular bridge may be identified by the bridge’s name.

Manager

Configuration for an OVSDB connection. Records may be identified by target (e.g. tcp:1.2.3.4).

NetFlow

A NetFlow configuration attached to a bridge. Records may be identified by bridge name.

SSL

The global SSL configuration for ovs−vswitchd. The record attached to the Open_vSwitch table may be identified by specifying . as the record name.

sFlow

An sFlow exporter configuration attached to a bridge. Records may be identified by bridge name.

IPFIX

An IPFIX exporter configuration attached to a bridge. Records may be identified by bridge name.

Flow_Sample_Collector_Set

An IPFIX exporter configuration attached to a bridge for sampling packets on a per-flow basis using OpenFlow sample actions.

Record names must be specified in full and with correct capitalization. Names of tables and columns are not case-sensitive, and −− and _ are treated interchangeably. Unique abbreviations are acceptable, e.g. net or n is sufficient to identify the NetFlow table.

Database Values

Each column in the database accepts a fixed type of data. The currently defined basic types, and their representations, are:

integer

A decimal integer in the range −2**63 to 2**63−1, inclusive.

real

A floating-point number.

Boolean

True or false, written true or false, respectively.

string

An arbitrary Unicode string, except that null bytes are not allowed. Quotes are optional for most strings that begin with an English letter or underscore and consist only of letters, underscores, hyphens, and periods. However, true and false and strings that match the syntax of UUIDs (see below) must be enclosed in double quotes to distinguish them from other basic types. When double quotes are used, the syntax is that of strings in JSON, e.g. backslashes may be used to escape special characters. The empty string must be represented as a pair of double quotes ("").

UUID

Either a universally unique identifier in the style of RFC 4122, e.g. f81d4fae−7dec−11d0−a765−00a0c91e6bf6, or an @name defined by a get or create command within the same ovs−vsctl invocation.

Multiple values in a single column may be separated by spaces or a single comma. When multiple values are present, duplicates are not allowed, and order is not important. Conversely, some database columns can have an empty set of values, represented as [], and square brackets may optionally enclose other non-empty sets or single values as well.

A few database columns are ‘‘maps’’ of key-value pairs, where the key and the value are each some fixed database type. These are specified in the form key=value, where key and value follow the syntax for the column’s key type and value type, respectively. When multiple pairs are present (separated by spaces or a comma), duplicate keys are not allowed, and again the order is not important. Duplicate values are allowed. An empty map is represented as {}. Curly braces may optionally enclose non-empty maps as well (but use quotes to prevent the shell from expanding other-config={0=x,1=y} into other-config=0=x other-config=1=y, which may not have the desired effect).

Database Command Syntax

[−−if−exists] [−−columns=column[,column]...] list table [record]...

Lists the data in each specified record. If no records are specified, lists all the records in table.

If −−columns is specified, only the requested columns are listed, in the specified order. Otherwise, all columns are listed, in alphabetical order by column name.

Without −−if-exists, it is an error if any specified record does not exist. With −−if-exists, the command ignores any record that does not exist, without producing any output.

[−−columns=column[,column]...] find table [column[:key]=value]...

Lists the data in each record in table whose column equals value or, if key is specified, whose column contains a key with the specified value. The following operators may be used where = is written in the syntax summary:

= != < > <= >=

Selects records in which column[:key] equals, does not equal, is less than, is greater than, is less than or equal to, or is greater than or equal to value, respectively.

Consider column[:key] and value as sets of elements. Identical sets are considered equal. Otherwise, if the sets have different numbers of elements, then the set with more elements is considered to be larger. Otherwise, consider a element from each set pairwise, in increasing order within each set. The first pair that differs determines the result. (For a column that contains key-value pairs, first all the keys are compared, and values are considered only if the two sets contain identical keys.)

{=} {!=}

Test for set equality or inequality, respectively.

{<=}

Selects records in which column[:key] is a subset of value. For example, flood-vlans{<=}1,2 selects records in which the flood-vlans column is the empty set or contains 1 or 2 or both.

{<}

Selects records in which column[:key] is a proper subset of value. For example, flood-vlans{<}1,2 selects records in which the flood-vlans column is the empty set or contains 1 or 2 but not both.

{>=} {>}

Same as {<=} and {<}, respectively, except that the relationship is reversed. For example, flood-vlans{>=}1,2 selects records in which the flood-vlans column contains both 1 and 2.

For arithmetic operators (= != < > <= >=), when key is specified but a particular record’s column does not contain key, the record is always omitted from the results. Thus, the condition other-config:mtu!=1500 matches records that have a mtu key whose value is not 1500, but not those that lack an mtu key.

For the set operators, when key is specified but a particular record’s column does not contain key, the comparison is done against an empty set. Thus, the condition other-config:mtu{!=}1500 matches records that have a mtu key whose value is not 1500 and those that lack an mtu key.

Don’t forget to escape < or > from interpretation by the shell.

If −−columns is specified, only the requested columns are listed, in the specified order. Otherwise all columns are listed, in alphabetical order by column name.

The UUIDs shown for rows created in the same ovs−vsctl invocation will be wrong.

[−−if−exists] [−−id=@name] get table record [column[:key]]...

Prints the value of each specified column in the given record in table. For map columns, a key may optionally be specified, in which case the value associated with key in the column is printed, instead of the entire map.

Without −−if−exists, it is an error if record does not exist or key is specified, if key does not exist in record. With −−if−exists, a missing record yields no output and a missing key prints a blank line.

If @name is specified, then the UUID for record may be referred to by that name later in the same ovs−vsctl invocation in contexts where a UUID is expected.

Both −−id and the column arguments are optional, but usually at least one or the other should be specified. If both are omitted, then get has no effect except to verify that record exists in table.

−−id and −−if−exists cannot be used together.

[−−if−exists] set table record column[:key]=value...

Sets the value of each specified column in the given record in table to value. For map columns, a key may optionally be specified, in which case the value associated with key in that column is changed (or added, if none exists), instead of the entire map.

Without −−if-exists, it is an error if record does not exist. With −−if-exists, this command does nothing if record does not exist.

[−−if−exists] add table record column [key=]value...

Adds the specified value or key-value pair to column in record in table. If column is a map, then key is required, otherwise it is prohibited. If key already exists in a map column, then the current value is not replaced (use the set command to replace an existing value).

Without −−if-exists, it is an error if record does not exist. With −−if-exists, this command does nothing if record does not exist.

[−−if−exists] remove table record column value...

[−−if−exists] remove table record column key...

[−−if−exists] remove table record column key=value...

Removes the specified values or key-value pairs from column in record in table. The first form applies to columns that are not maps: each specified value is removed from the column. The second and third forms apply to map columns: if only a key is specified, then any key-value pair with the given key is removed, regardless of its value; if a value is given then a pair is removed only if both key and value match.

It is not an error if the column does not contain the specified key or value or pair.

Without −−if-exists, it is an error if record does not exist. With −−if-exists, this command does nothing if record does not exist.

[−−if−exists] clear table record column...

Sets each column in record in table to the empty set or empty map, as appropriate. This command applies only to columns that are allowed to be empty.

Without −−if-exists, it is an error if record does not exist. With −−if-exists, this command does nothing if record does not exist.

[−−id=@name] create table column[:key]=value...

Creates a new record in table and sets the initial values of each column. Columns not explicitly set will receive their default values. Outputs the UUID of the new row.

If @name is specified, then the UUID for the new row may be referred to by that name elsewhere in the same ovs−vsctl invocation in contexts where a UUID is expected. Such references may precede or follow the create command.

Records in the Open vSwitch database are significant only when they can be reached directly or indirectly from the Open_vSwitch table. Except for records in the QoS or Queue tables, records that are not reachable from the Open_vSwitch table are automatically deleted from the database. This deletion happens immediately, without waiting for additional ovs−vsctl commands or other database activity. Thus, a create command must generally be accompanied by additional commands within the same ovs−vsctl invocation to add a chain of references to the newly created record from the top-level Open_vSwitch record. The EXAMPLES section gives some examples that show how to do this.

[−−if−exists] destroy table record...

Deletes each specified record from table. Unless −−if−exists is specified, each records must exist.

−−all destroy table

Deletes all records from the table.

The destroy command is only useful for records in the QoS or Queue tables. Records in other tables are automatically deleted from the database when they become unreachable from the Open_vSwitch table. This means that deleting the last reference to a record is sufficient for deleting the record itself. For records in these tables, destroy is silently ignored. See the EXAMPLES section below for more information.

wait−until table record [column[:key]=value]...

Waits until table contains a record named record whose column equals value or, if key is specified, whose column contains a key with the specified value. Any of the operators !=, <, >, <=, or >= may be substituted for = to test for inequality, less than, greater than, less than or equal to, or greater than or equal to, respectively. (Don’t forget to escape < or > from interpretation by the shell.)

If no column[:key]=value arguments are given, this command waits only until record exists. If more than one such argument is given, the command waits until all of them are satisfied.

Usually wait−until should be placed at the beginning of a set of ovs−vsctl commands. For example, wait−until bridge br0 −− get bridge br0 datapath_id waits until a bridge named br0 is created, then prints its datapath_id column, whereas get bridge br0 datapath_id −− wait−until bridge br0 will abort if no bridge named br0 exists when ovs−vsctl initially connects to the database.

Consider specifying −−timeout=0 along with −−wait−until, to prevent ovs−vsctl from terminating after waiting only at most 5 seconds.

comment [arg]...

This command has no effect on behavior, but any database log record created by the command will include the command and its arguments.

EXAMPLES

Create a new bridge named br0 and add port eth0 to it:

ovs−vsctl add−br br0
ovs−vsctl add−port br0 eth0

Alternatively, perform both operations in a single atomic transaction:

ovs−vsctl add−br br0 −− add−port br0 eth0

Delete bridge br0, reporting an error if it does not exist:

ovs−vsctl del−br br0

Delete bridge br0 if it exists:

ovs−vsctl −−if−exists del−br br0

Set the qos column of the Port record for eth0 to point to a new QoS record, which in turn points with its queue 0 to a new Queue record:

ovs−vsctl −− set port eth0 qos=@newqos −− −−id=@newqos create qos type=linux−htb other−config:max−rate=1000000 queues:0=@newqueue −− −−id=@newqueue create queue other−config:min−rate=1000000 other−config:max−rate=1000000

CONFIGURATION COOKBOOK

Port Configuration

Add an ‘‘internal port’’ vlan10 to bridge br0 as a VLAN access port for VLAN 10, and configure it with an IP address:

ovs−vsctl add−port br0 vlan10 tag=10 −− set Interface vlan10 type=internal

ifconfig vlan10 192.168.0.123

Add a GRE tunnel port gre0 to remote IP address 1.2.3.4 to bridge br0:

ovs−vsctl add−port br0 gre0 −− set Interface gre0 type=gre options:remote_ip=1.2.3.4

Port Mirroring

Mirror all packets received or sent on eth0 or eth1 onto eth2, assuming that all of those ports exist on bridge br0 (as a side-effect this causes any packets received on eth2 to be ignored):

ovs−vsctl −− set Bridge br0 mirrors=@m \

−− −−id=@eth0 get Port eth0 \

−− −−id=@eth1 get Port eth1 \

−− −−id=@eth2 get Port eth2 \

−− −−id=@m create Mirror name=mymirror select-dst-port=@eth0,@eth1 select-src-port=@eth0,@eth1 output-port=@eth2

Remove the mirror created above from br0, which also destroys the Mirror record (since it is now unreferenced):

ovs−vsctl −− −−id=@rec get Mirror mymirror \

−− remove Bridge br0 mirrors @rec

The following simpler command also works:

ovs−vsctl clear Bridge br0 mirrors

Quality of Service (QoS)

Create a linux−htb QoS record that points to a few queues and use it on eth0 and eth1:

ovs−vsctl −− set Port eth0 qos=@newqos \

−− set Port eth1 qos=@newqos \

−− −−id=@newqos create QoS type=linux−htb other−config:max−rate=1000000000 queues=0=@q0,1=@q1 \

−− −−id=@q0 create Queue other−config:min−rate=100000000 other−config:max−rate=100000000 \

−− −−id=@q1 create Queue other−config:min−rate=500000000

Deconfigure the QoS record above from eth1 only:

ovs−vsctl clear Port eth1 qos

To deconfigure the QoS record from both eth0 and eth1 and then delete the QoS record (which must be done explicitly because unreferenced QoS records are not automatically destroyed):

ovs−vsctl −− destroy QoS eth0 −− clear Port eth0 qos −− clear Port eth1 qos

(This command will leave two unreferenced Queue records in the database. To delete them, use "ovs−vsctl list Queue" to find their UUIDs, then "ovs−vsctl destroy Queue uuid1 uuid2" to destroy each of them or use "ovs−vsctl -- --all destroy Queue" to delete all records.)

Connectivity Monitoring

Monitor connectivity to a remote maintenance point on eth0.

ovs−vsctl set Interface eth0 cfm_mpid=1

Deconfigure connectivity monitoring from above:

ovs−vsctl clear Interface eth0 cfm_mpid

NetFlow

Configure bridge br0 to send NetFlow records to UDP port 5566 on host 192.168.0.34, with an active timeout of 30 seconds:

ovs−vsctl −− set Bridge br0 netflow=@nf \

−− −−id=@nf create NetFlow targets=\"192.168.0.34:5566\" active−timeout=30

Update the NetFlow configuration created by the previous command to instead use an active timeout of 60 seconds:

ovs−vsctl set NetFlow br0 active_timeout=60

Deconfigure the NetFlow settings from br0, which also destroys the NetFlow record (since it is now unreferenced):

ovs−vsctl clear Bridge br0 netflow

sFlow

Configure bridge br0 to send sFlow records to a collector on 10.0.0.1 at port 6343, using eth1´s IP address as the source, with specific sampling parameters:

ovs−vsctl −− −−id=@s create sFlow agent=eth1 target=\"10.0.0.1:6343\" header=128 sampling=64 polling=10 \

−− set Bridge br0 sflow=@s

Deconfigure sFlow from br0, which also destroys the sFlow record (since it is now unreferenced):

ovs−vsctl −− clear Bridge br0 sflow

IPFIX

Configure bridge br0 to send one IPFIX flow record per packet sample to UDP port 4739 on host 192.168.0.34, with Observation Domain ID 123 and Observation Point ID 456:

ovs−vsctl −− set Bridge br0 ipfix=@i \

−− −−id=@i create IPFIX targets=\"192.168.0.34:4739\" obs_domain_id=123 obs_point_id=456

Deconfigure the IPFIX settings from br0, which also destroys the IPFIX record (since it is now unreferenced):

ovs−vsctl clear Bridge br0 ipfix

802.1D Spanning Tree Protocol (STP)

Configure bridge br0 to participate in an 802.1D spanning tree:

ovs−vsctl set Bridge br0 stp_enable=true

Set the bridge priority of br0 to 0x7800:

ovs−vsctl set Bridge br0 other_config:stp-priority=0x7800

Set the path cost of port eth0 to 10:

ovs−vsctl set Port eth0 other_config:stp-path-cost=10

Deconfigure STP from above:

ovs−vsctl clear Bridge br0 stp_enable

OpenFlow Version

Configure bridge br0 to support OpenFlow versions 1.0, 1.2, and 1.3:

ovs−vsctl set bridge br0 protocols=openflow10,openflow12,openflow13

EXIT STATUS

0

Successful program execution.

1

Usage, syntax, or configuration file error.

2

The bridge argument to br−exists specified the name of a bridge that does not exist.

SEE ALSO

ovsdb−server(1), ovs−vswitchd(8), ovs−vswitchd.conf.db(5).