[ovs-dev] [python 1/7] python: Backport argparse to older platforms.

Ethan Jackson ethan at nicira.com
Mon Sep 26 16:49:21 PDT 2011


Argparse has some convenient advantages over optparse including the
ability to handle optional arguments to flags.  It also supports
parsing arguments as well as options.

This patch copies argparse.py from Python 2.7 into a newly created
compat directory.  It made some very minor syntactic updates in the
process.  Platforms which have a Python version too old to include
argparse by default will have this compat version installed as a
workaround.
---
 Makefile.am                          |    1 +
 debian/control                       |    2 +-
 debian/copyright.in                  |    3 +-
 python/compat/argparse.py            | 2350 ++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++
 python/compat/automake.mk            |    3 +
 {xenserver => python/compat}/uuid.py |    0
 rhel/openvswitch.spec.in             |    3 +-
 xenserver/README                     |   10 +-
 xenserver/automake.mk                |    3 +-
 xenserver/openvswitch-xen.spec       |    4 +-
 10 files changed, 2371 insertions(+), 8 deletions(-)
 create mode 100644 python/compat/argparse.py
 create mode 100644 python/compat/automake.mk
 rename {xenserver => python/compat}/uuid.py (100%)

diff --git a/Makefile.am b/Makefile.am
index ec674b7..3cd56de 100644
--- a/Makefile.am
+++ b/Makefile.am
@@ -181,3 +181,4 @@ include ovsdb/automake.mk
 include rhel/automake.mk
 include xenserver/automake.mk
 include python/ovs/automake.mk
+include python/compat/automake.mk
diff --git a/debian/control b/debian/control
index 8e3b43a..1f3387a 100644
--- a/debian/control
+++ b/debian/control
@@ -33,7 +33,7 @@ Description: Open vSwitch datapath module source - DKMS version
 
 Package: openvswitch-common
 Architecture: linux-any
-Depends: ${shlibs:Depends}, openssl, ${misc:Depends}, python
+Depends: ${shlibs:Depends}, openssl, ${misc:Depends}, python, python-argparse
 Suggests: ethtool
 Description: Open vSwitch common components
  openvswitch-common provides components required by both openvswitch-switch
diff --git a/debian/copyright.in b/debian/copyright.in
index 59fd8af..dc7b387 100644
--- a/debian/copyright.in
+++ b/debian/copyright.in
@@ -84,7 +84,8 @@ License:
 * The following component is licenced under the
   Python Software Foundation License Version 2.
 
-	xenserver/uuid.py
+	python/compat/uuid.py
+	python/compat/argparse.py
 
 	* This component is only distributed in the source package.
 	  It does not appear in any binary packages.
diff --git a/python/compat/argparse.py b/python/compat/argparse.py
new file mode 100644
index 0000000..6725a9c
--- /dev/null
+++ b/python/compat/argparse.py
@@ -0,0 +1,2350 @@
+# Author: Steven J. Bethard <steven.bethard at gmail.com>.
+
+"""Command-line parsing library
+
+This module is an optparse-inspired command-line parsing library that:
+
+    - handles both optional and positional arguments
+    - produces highly informative usage messages
+    - supports parsers that dispatch to sub-parsers
+
+The following is a simple usage example that sums integers from the
+command-line and writes the result to a file::
+
+    parser = argparse.ArgumentParser(
+        description='sum the integers at the command line')
+    parser.add_argument(
+        'integers', metavar='int', nargs='+', type=int,
+        help='an integer to be summed')
+    parser.add_argument(
+        '--log', default=sys.stdout, type=argparse.FileType('w'),
+        help='the file where the sum should be written')
+    args = parser.parse_args()
+    args.log.write('%s' % sum(args.integers))
+    args.log.close()
+
+The module contains the following public classes:
+
+    - ArgumentParser -- The main entry point for command-line parsing. As the
+        example above shows, the add_argument() method is used to populate
+        the parser with actions for optional and positional arguments. Then
+        the parse_args() method is invoked to convert the args at the
+        command-line into an object with attributes.
+
+    - ArgumentError -- The exception raised by ArgumentParser objects when
+        there are errors with the parser's actions. Errors raised while
+        parsing the command-line are caught by ArgumentParser and emitted
+        as command-line messages.
+
+    - FileType -- A factory for defining types of files to be created. As the
+        example above shows, instances of FileType are typically passed as
+        the type= argument of add_argument() calls.
+
+    - Action -- The base class for parser actions. Typically actions are
+        selected by passing strings like 'store_true' or 'append_const' to
+        the action= argument of add_argument(). However, for greater
+        customization of ArgumentParser actions, subclasses of Action may
+        be defined and passed as the action= argument.
+
+    - HelpFormatter, RawDescriptionHelpFormatter, RawTextHelpFormatter,
+        ArgumentDefaultsHelpFormatter -- Formatter classes which
+        may be passed as the formatter_class= argument to the
+        ArgumentParser constructor. HelpFormatter is the default,
+        RawDescriptionHelpFormatter and RawTextHelpFormatter tell the parser
+        not to change the formatting for help text, and
+        ArgumentDefaultsHelpFormatter adds information about argument defaults
+        to the help.
+
+All other classes in this module are considered implementation details.
+(Also note that HelpFormatter and RawDescriptionHelpFormatter are only
+considered public as object names -- the API of the formatter objects is
+still considered an implementation detail.)
+"""
+
+__version__ = '1.1'
+__all__ = [
+    'ArgumentParser',
+    'ArgumentError',
+    'ArgumentTypeError',
+    'FileType',
+    'HelpFormatter',
+    'ArgumentDefaultsHelpFormatter',
+    'RawDescriptionHelpFormatter',
+    'RawTextHelpFormatter',
+    'Namespace',
+    'Action',
+    'ONE_OR_MORE',
+    'OPTIONAL',
+    'PARSER',
+    'REMAINDER',
+    'SUPPRESS',
+    'ZERO_OR_MORE',
+]
+
+
+import collections as _collections
+import copy as _copy
+import os as _os
+import re as _re
+import sys as _sys
+import textwrap as _textwrap
+
+from gettext import gettext as _
+
+
+def _callable(obj):
+    return hasattr(obj, '__call__') or hasattr(obj, '__bases__')
+
+
+SUPPRESS = '==SUPPRESS=='
+
+OPTIONAL = '?'
+ZERO_OR_MORE = '*'
+ONE_OR_MORE = '+'
+PARSER = 'A...'
+REMAINDER = '...'
+_UNRECOGNIZED_ARGS_ATTR = '_unrecognized_args'
+
+# =============================
+# Utility functions and classes
+# =============================
+
+class _AttributeHolder(object):
+    """Abstract base class that provides __repr__.
+
+    The __repr__ method returns a string in the format::
+        ClassName(attr=name, attr=name, ...)
+    The attributes are determined either by a class-level attribute,
+    '_kwarg_names', or by inspecting the instance __dict__.
+    """
+
+    def __repr__(self):
+        type_name = type(self).__name__
+        arg_strings = []
+        for arg in self._get_args():
+            arg_strings.append(repr(arg))
+        for name, value in self._get_kwargs():
+            arg_strings.append('%s=%r' % (name, value))
+        return '%s(%s)' % (type_name, ', '.join(arg_strings))
+
+    def _get_kwargs(self):
+        return sorted(self.__dict__.items())
+
+    def _get_args(self):
+        return []
+
+
+def _ensure_value(namespace, name, value):
+    if getattr(namespace, name, None) is None:
+        setattr(namespace, name, value)
+    return getattr(namespace, name)
+
+
+# ===============
+# Formatting Help
+# ===============
+
+class HelpFormatter(object):
+    """Formatter for generating usage messages and argument help strings.
+
+    Only the name of this class is considered a public API. All the methods
+    provided by the class are considered an implementation detail.
+    """
+
+    def __init__(self,
+                 prog,
+                 indent_increment=2,
+                 max_help_position=24,
+                 width=None):
+
+        # default setting for width
+        if width is None:
+            try:
+                width = int(_os.environ['COLUMNS'])
+            except (KeyError, ValueError):
+                width = 80
+            width -= 2
+
+        self._prog = prog
+        self._indent_increment = indent_increment
+        self._max_help_position = max_help_position
+        self._width = width
+
+        self._current_indent = 0
+        self._level = 0
+        self._action_max_length = 0
+
+        self._root_section = self._Section(self, None)
+        self._current_section = self._root_section
+
+        self._whitespace_matcher = _re.compile(r'\s+')
+        self._long_break_matcher = _re.compile(r'\n\n\n+')
+
+    # ===============================
+    # Section and indentation methods
+    # ===============================
+    def _indent(self):
+        self._current_indent += self._indent_increment
+        self._level += 1
+
+    def _dedent(self):
+        self._current_indent -= self._indent_increment
+        assert self._current_indent >= 0, 'Indent decreased below 0.'
+        self._level -= 1
+
+    class _Section(object):
+
+        def __init__(self, formatter, parent, heading=None):
+            self.formatter = formatter
+            self.parent = parent
+            self.heading = heading
+            self.items = []
+
+        def format_help(self):
+            # format the indented section
+            if self.parent is not None:
+                self.formatter._indent()
+            join = self.formatter._join_parts
+            for func, args in self.items:
+                func(*args)
+            item_help = join([func(*args) for func, args in self.items])
+            if self.parent is not None:
+                self.formatter._dedent()
+
+            # return nothing if the section was empty
+            if not item_help:
+                return ''
+
+            # add the heading if the section was non-empty
+            if self.heading is not SUPPRESS and self.heading is not None:
+                current_indent = self.formatter._current_indent
+                heading = '%*s%s:\n' % (current_indent, '', self.heading)
+            else:
+                heading = ''
+
+            # join the section-initial newline, the heading and the help
+            return join(['\n', heading, item_help, '\n'])
+
+    def _add_item(self, func, args):
+        self._current_section.items.append((func, args))
+
+    # ========================
+    # Message building methods
+    # ========================
+    def start_section(self, heading):
+        self._indent()
+        section = self._Section(self, self._current_section, heading)
+        self._add_item(section.format_help, [])
+        self._current_section = section
+
+    def end_section(self):
+        self._current_section = self._current_section.parent
+        self._dedent()
+
+    def add_text(self, text):
+        if text is not SUPPRESS and text is not None:
+            self._add_item(self._format_text, [text])
+
+    def add_usage(self, usage, actions, groups, prefix=None):
+        if usage is not SUPPRESS:
+            args = usage, actions, groups, prefix
+            self._add_item(self._format_usage, args)
+
+    def add_argument(self, action):
+        if action.help is not SUPPRESS:
+
+            # find all invocations
+            get_invocation = self._format_action_invocation
+            invocations = [get_invocation(action)]
+            for subaction in self._iter_indented_subactions(action):
+                invocations.append(get_invocation(subaction))
+
+            # update the maximum item length
+            invocation_length = max([len(s) for s in invocations])
+            action_length = invocation_length + self._current_indent
+            self._action_max_length = max(self._action_max_length,
+                                          action_length)
+
+            # add the item to the list
+            self._add_item(self._format_action, [action])
+
+    def add_arguments(self, actions):
+        for action in actions:
+            self.add_argument(action)
+
+    # =======================
+    # Help-formatting methods
+    # =======================
+    def format_help(self):
+        help = self._root_section.format_help()
+        if help:
+            help = self._long_break_matcher.sub('\n\n', help)
+            help = help.strip('\n') + '\n'
+        return help
+
+    def _join_parts(self, part_strings):
+        return ''.join([part
+                        for part in part_strings
+                        if part and part is not SUPPRESS])
+
+    def _format_usage(self, usage, actions, groups, prefix):
+        if prefix is None:
+            prefix = _('usage: ')
+
+        # if usage is specified, use that
+        if usage is not None:
+            usage = usage % dict(prog=self._prog)
+
+        # if no optionals or positionals are available, usage is just prog
+        elif usage is None and not actions:
+            usage = '%(prog)s' % dict(prog=self._prog)
+
+        # if optionals and positionals are available, calculate usage
+        elif usage is None:
+            prog = '%(prog)s' % dict(prog=self._prog)
+
+            # split optionals from positionals
+            optionals = []
+            positionals = []
+            for action in actions:
+                if action.option_strings:
+                    optionals.append(action)
+                else:
+                    positionals.append(action)
+
+            # build full usage string
+            format = self._format_actions_usage
+            action_usage = format(optionals + positionals, groups)
+            usage = ' '.join([s for s in [prog, action_usage] if s])
+
+            # wrap the usage parts if it's too long
+            text_width = self._width - self._current_indent
+            if len(prefix) + len(usage) > text_width:
+
+                # break usage into wrappable parts
+                part_regexp = r'\(.*?\)+|\[.*?\]+|\S+'
+                opt_usage = format(optionals, groups)
+                pos_usage = format(positionals, groups)
+                opt_parts = _re.findall(part_regexp, opt_usage)
+                pos_parts = _re.findall(part_regexp, pos_usage)
+                assert ' '.join(opt_parts) == opt_usage
+                assert ' '.join(pos_parts) == pos_usage
+
+                # helper for wrapping lines
+                def get_lines(parts, indent, prefix=None):
+                    lines = []
+                    line = []
+                    if prefix is not None:
+                        line_len = len(prefix) - 1
+                    else:
+                        line_len = len(indent) - 1
+                    for part in parts:
+                        if line_len + 1 + len(part) > text_width:
+                            lines.append(indent + ' '.join(line))
+                            line = []
+                            line_len = len(indent) - 1
+                        line.append(part)
+                        line_len += len(part) + 1
+                    if line:
+                        lines.append(indent + ' '.join(line))
+                    if prefix is not None:
+                        lines[0] = lines[0][len(indent):]
+                    return lines
+
+                # if prog is short, follow it with optionals or positionals
+                if len(prefix) + len(prog) <= 0.75 * text_width:
+                    indent = ' ' * (len(prefix) + len(prog) + 1)
+                    if opt_parts:
+                        lines = get_lines([prog] + opt_parts, indent, prefix)
+                        lines.extend(get_lines(pos_parts, indent))
+                    elif pos_parts:
+                        lines = get_lines([prog] + pos_parts, indent, prefix)
+                    else:
+                        lines = [prog]
+
+                # if prog is long, put it on its own line
+                else:
+                    indent = ' ' * len(prefix)
+                    parts = opt_parts + pos_parts
+                    lines = get_lines(parts, indent)
+                    if len(lines) > 1:
+                        lines = []
+                        lines.extend(get_lines(opt_parts, indent))
+                        lines.extend(get_lines(pos_parts, indent))
+                    lines = [prog] + lines
+
+                # join lines into usage
+                usage = '\n'.join(lines)
+
+        # prefix with 'usage:'
+        return '%s%s\n\n' % (prefix, usage)
+
+    def _format_actions_usage(self, actions, groups):
+        # find group indices and identify actions in groups
+        group_actions = set()
+        inserts = {}
+        for group in groups:
+            try:
+                start = actions.index(group._group_actions[0])
+            except ValueError:
+                continue
+            else:
+                end = start + len(group._group_actions)
+                if actions[start:end] == group._group_actions:
+                    for action in group._group_actions:
+                        group_actions.add(action)
+                    if not group.required:
+                        if start in inserts:
+                            inserts[start] += ' ['
+                        else:
+                            inserts[start] = '['
+                        inserts[end] = ']'
+                    else:
+                        if start in inserts:
+                            inserts[start] += ' ('
+                        else:
+                            inserts[start] = '('
+                        inserts[end] = ')'
+                    for i in range(start + 1, end):
+                        inserts[i] = '|'
+
+        # collect all actions format strings
+        parts = []
+        for i, action in enumerate(actions):
+
+            # suppressed arguments are marked with None
+            # remove | separators for suppressed arguments
+            if action.help is SUPPRESS:
+                parts.append(None)
+                if inserts.get(i) == '|':
+                    inserts.pop(i)
+                elif inserts.get(i + 1) == '|':
+                    inserts.pop(i + 1)
+
+            # produce all arg strings
+            elif not action.option_strings:
+                part = self._format_args(action, action.dest)
+
+                # if it's in a group, strip the outer []
+                if action in group_actions:
+                    if part[0] == '[' and part[-1] == ']':
+                        part = part[1:-1]
+
+                # add the action string to the list
+                parts.append(part)
+
+            # produce the first way to invoke the option in brackets
+            else:
+                option_string = action.option_strings[0]
+
+                # if the Optional doesn't take a value, format is:
+                #    -s or --long
+                if action.nargs == 0:
+                    part = '%s' % option_string
+
+                # if the Optional takes a value, format is:
+                #    -s ARGS or --long ARGS
+                else:
+                    default = action.dest.upper()
+                    args_string = self._format_args(action, default)
+                    part = '%s %s' % (option_string, args_string)
+
+                # make it look optional if it's not required or in a group
+                if not action.required and action not in group_actions:
+                    part = '[%s]' % part
+
+                # add the action string to the list
+                parts.append(part)
+
+        # insert things at the necessary indices
+        for i in sorted(inserts, reverse=True):
+            parts[i:i] = [inserts[i]]
+
+        # join all the action items with spaces
+        text = ' '.join([item for item in parts if item is not None])
+
+        # clean up separators for mutually exclusive groups
+        open = r'[\[(]'
+        close = r'[\])]'
+        text = _re.sub(r'(%s) ' % open, r'\1', text)
+        text = _re.sub(r' (%s)' % close, r'\1', text)
+        text = _re.sub(r'%s *%s' % (open, close), r'', text)
+        text = _re.sub(r'\(([^|]*)\)', r'\1', text)
+        text = text.strip()
+
+        # return the text
+        return text
+
+    def _format_text(self, text):
+        if '%(prog)' in text:
+            text = text % dict(prog=self._prog)
+        text_width = self._width - self._current_indent
+        indent = ' ' * self._current_indent
+        return self._fill_text(text, text_width, indent) + '\n\n'
+
+    def _format_action(self, action):
+        # determine the required width and the entry label
+        help_position = min(self._action_max_length + 2,
+                            self._max_help_position)
+        help_width = self._width - help_position
+        action_width = help_position - self._current_indent - 2
+        action_header = self._format_action_invocation(action)
+
+        # ho nelp; start on same line and add a final newline
+        if not action.help:
+            tup = self._current_indent, '', action_header
+            action_header = '%*s%s\n' % tup
+
+        # short action name; start on the same line and pad two spaces
+        elif len(action_header) <= action_width:
+            tup = self._current_indent, '', action_width, action_header
+            action_header = '%*s%-*s  ' % tup
+            indent_first = 0
+
+        # long action name; start on the next line
+        else:
+            tup = self._current_indent, '', action_header
+            action_header = '%*s%s\n' % tup
+            indent_first = help_position
+
+        # collect the pieces of the action help
+        parts = [action_header]
+
+        # if there was help for the action, add lines of help text
+        if action.help:
+            help_text = self._expand_help(action)
+            help_lines = self._split_lines(help_text, help_width)
+            parts.append('%*s%s\n' % (indent_first, '', help_lines[0]))
+            for line in help_lines[1:]:
+                parts.append('%*s%s\n' % (help_position, '', line))
+
+        # or add a newline if the description doesn't end with one
+        elif not action_header.endswith('\n'):
+            parts.append('\n')
+
+        # if there are any sub-actions, add their help as well
+        for subaction in self._iter_indented_subactions(action):
+            parts.append(self._format_action(subaction))
+
+        # return a single string
+        return self._join_parts(parts)
+
+    def _format_action_invocation(self, action):
+        if not action.option_strings:
+            metavar, = self._metavar_formatter(action, action.dest)(1)
+            return metavar
+
+        else:
+            parts = []
+
+            # if the Optional doesn't take a value, format is:
+            #    -s, --long
+            if action.nargs == 0:
+                parts.extend(action.option_strings)
+
+            # if the Optional takes a value, format is:
+            #    -s ARGS, --long ARGS
+            else:
+                default = action.dest.upper()
+                args_string = self._format_args(action, default)
+                for option_string in action.option_strings:
+                    parts.append('%s %s' % (option_string, args_string))
+
+            return ', '.join(parts)
+
+    def _metavar_formatter(self, action, default_metavar):
+        if action.metavar is not None:
+            result = action.metavar
+        elif action.choices is not None:
+            choice_strs = [str(choice) for choice in action.choices]
+            result = '{%s}' % ','.join(choice_strs)
+        else:
+            result = default_metavar
+
+        def format(tuple_size):
+            if isinstance(result, tuple):
+                return result
+            else:
+                return (result, ) * tuple_size
+        return format
+
+    def _format_args(self, action, default_metavar):
+        get_metavar = self._metavar_formatter(action, default_metavar)
+        if action.nargs is None:
+            result = '%s' % get_metavar(1)
+        elif action.nargs == OPTIONAL:
+            result = '[%s]' % get_metavar(1)
+        elif action.nargs == ZERO_OR_MORE:
+            result = '[%s [%s ...]]' % get_metavar(2)
+        elif action.nargs == ONE_OR_MORE:
+            result = '%s [%s ...]' % get_metavar(2)
+        elif action.nargs == REMAINDER:
+            result = '...'
+        elif action.nargs == PARSER:
+            result = '%s ...' % get_metavar(1)
+        else:
+            formats = ['%s' for _ in range(action.nargs)]
+            result = ' '.join(formats) % get_metavar(action.nargs)
+        return result
+
+    def _expand_help(self, action):
+        params = dict(vars(action), prog=self._prog)
+        for name in list(params):
+            if params[name] is SUPPRESS:
+                del params[name]
+        for name in list(params):
+            if hasattr(params[name], '__name__'):
+                params[name] = params[name].__name__
+        if params.get('choices') is not None:
+            choices_str = ', '.join([str(c) for c in params['choices']])
+            params['choices'] = choices_str
+        return self._get_help_string(action) % params
+
+    def _iter_indented_subactions(self, action):
+        try:
+            get_subactions = action._get_subactions
+        except AttributeError:
+            pass
+        else:
+            self._indent()
+            for subaction in get_subactions():
+                yield subaction
+            self._dedent()
+
+    def _split_lines(self, text, width):
+        text = self._whitespace_matcher.sub(' ', text).strip()
+        return _textwrap.wrap(text, width)
+
+    def _fill_text(self, text, width, indent):
+        text = self._whitespace_matcher.sub(' ', text).strip()
+        return _textwrap.fill(text, width, initial_indent=indent,
+                                           subsequent_indent=indent)
+
+    def _get_help_string(self, action):
+        return action.help
+
+
+class RawDescriptionHelpFormatter(HelpFormatter):
+    """Help message formatter which retains any formatting in descriptions.
+
+    Only the name of this class is considered a public API. All the methods
+    provided by the class are considered an implementation detail.
+    """
+
+    def _fill_text(self, text, width, indent):
+        return ''.join([indent + line for line in text.splitlines(True)])
+
+
+class RawTextHelpFormatter(RawDescriptionHelpFormatter):
+    """Help message formatter which retains formatting of all help text.
+
+    Only the name of this class is considered a public API. All the methods
+    provided by the class are considered an implementation detail.
+    """
+
+    def _split_lines(self, text, width):
+        return text.splitlines()
+
+
+class ArgumentDefaultsHelpFormatter(HelpFormatter):
+    """Help message formatter which adds default values to argument help.
+
+    Only the name of this class is considered a public API. All the methods
+    provided by the class are considered an implementation detail.
+    """
+
+    def _get_help_string(self, action):
+        help = action.help
+        if '%(default)' not in action.help:
+            if action.default is not SUPPRESS:
+                defaulting_nargs = [OPTIONAL, ZERO_OR_MORE]
+                if action.option_strings or action.nargs in defaulting_nargs:
+                    help += ' (default: %(default)s)'
+        return help
+
+
+# =====================
+# Options and Arguments
+# =====================
+
+def _get_action_name(argument):
+    if argument is None:
+        return None
+    elif argument.option_strings:
+        return  '/'.join(argument.option_strings)
+    elif argument.metavar not in (None, SUPPRESS):
+        return argument.metavar
+    elif argument.dest not in (None, SUPPRESS):
+        return argument.dest
+    else:
+        return None
+
+
+class ArgumentError(Exception):
+    """An error from creating or using an argument (optional or positional).
+
+    The string value of this exception is the message, augmented with
+    information about the argument that caused it.
+    """
+
+    def __init__(self, argument, message):
+        self.argument_name = _get_action_name(argument)
+        self.message = message
+
+    def __str__(self):
+        if self.argument_name is None:
+            format = '%(message)s'
+        else:
+            format = 'argument %(argument_name)s: %(message)s'
+        return format % dict(message=self.message,
+                             argument_name=self.argument_name)
+
+
+class ArgumentTypeError(Exception):
+    """An error from trying to convert a command line string to a type."""
+    pass
+
+
+# ==============
+# Action classes
+# ==============
+
+class Action(_AttributeHolder):
+    """Information about how to convert command line strings to Python objects.
+
+    Action objects are used by an ArgumentParser to represent the information
+    needed to parse a single argument from one or more strings from the
+    command line. The keyword arguments to the Action constructor are also
+    all attributes of Action instances.
+
+    Keyword Arguments:
+
+        - option_strings -- A list of command-line option strings which
+            should be associated with this action.
+
+        - dest -- The name of the attribute to hold the created object(s)
+
+        - nargs -- The number of command-line arguments that should be
+            consumed. By default, one argument will be consumed and a single
+            value will be produced.  Other values include:
+                - N (an integer) consumes N arguments (and produces a list)
+                - '?' consumes zero or one arguments
+                - '*' consumes zero or more arguments (and produces a list)
+                - '+' consumes one or more arguments (and produces a list)
+            Note that the difference between the default and nargs=1 is that
+            with the default, a single value will be produced, while with
+            nargs=1, a list containing a single value will be produced.
+
+        - const -- The value to be produced if the option is specified and the
+            option uses an action that takes no values.
+
+        - default -- The value to be produced if the option is not specified.
+
+        - type -- The type which the command-line arguments should be converted
+            to, should be one of 'string', 'int', 'float', 'complex' or a
+            callable object that accepts a single string argument. If None,
+            'string' is assumed.
+
+        - choices -- A container of values that should be allowed. If not None,
+            after a command-line argument has been converted to the appropriate
+            type, an exception will be raised if it is not a member of this
+            collection.
+
+        - required -- True if the action must always be specified at the
+            command line. This is only meaningful for optional command-line
+            arguments.
+
+        - help -- The help string describing the argument.
+
+        - metavar -- The name to be used for the option's argument with the
+            help string. If None, the 'dest' value will be used as the name.
+    """
+
+    def __init__(self,
+                 option_strings,
+                 dest,
+                 nargs=None,
+                 const=None,
+                 default=None,
+                 type=None,
+                 choices=None,
+                 required=False,
+                 help=None,
+                 metavar=None):
+        self.option_strings = option_strings
+        self.dest = dest
+        self.nargs = nargs
+        self.const = const
+        self.default = default
+        self.type = type
+        self.choices = choices
+        self.required = required
+        self.help = help
+        self.metavar = metavar
+
+    def _get_kwargs(self):
+        names = [
+            'option_strings',
+            'dest',
+            'nargs',
+            'const',
+            'default',
+            'type',
+            'choices',
+            'help',
+            'metavar',
+        ]
+        return [(name, getattr(self, name)) for name in names]
+
+    def __call__(self, parser, namespace, values, option_string=None):
+        raise NotImplementedError(_('.__call__() not defined'))
+
+
+class _StoreAction(Action):
+
+    def __init__(self,
+                 option_strings,
+                 dest,
+                 nargs=None,
+                 const=None,
+                 default=None,
+                 type=None,
+                 choices=None,
+                 required=False,
+                 help=None,
+                 metavar=None):
+        if nargs == 0:
+            raise ValueError('nargs for store actions must be > 0; if you '
+                             'have nothing to store, actions such as store '
+                             'true or store const may be more appropriate')
+        if const is not None and nargs != OPTIONAL:
+            raise ValueError('nargs must be %r to supply const' % OPTIONAL)
+        super(_StoreAction, self).__init__(
+            option_strings=option_strings,
+            dest=dest,
+            nargs=nargs,
+            const=const,
+            default=default,
+            type=type,
+            choices=choices,
+            required=required,
+            help=help,
+            metavar=metavar)
+
+    def __call__(self, parser, namespace, values, option_string=None):
+        setattr(namespace, self.dest, values)
+
+
+class _StoreConstAction(Action):
+
+    def __init__(self,
+                 option_strings,
+                 dest,
+                 const,
+                 default=None,
+                 required=False,
+                 help=None,
+                 metavar=None):
+        super(_StoreConstAction, self).__init__(
+            option_strings=option_strings,
+            dest=dest,
+            nargs=0,
+            const=const,
+            default=default,
+            required=required,
+            help=help)
+
+    def __call__(self, parser, namespace, values, option_string=None):
+        setattr(namespace, self.dest, self.const)
+
+
+class _StoreTrueAction(_StoreConstAction):
+
+    def __init__(self,
+                 option_strings,
+                 dest,
+                 default=False,
+                 required=False,
+                 help=None):
+        super(_StoreTrueAction, self).__init__(
+            option_strings=option_strings,
+            dest=dest,
+            const=True,
+            default=default,
+            required=required,
+            help=help)
+
+
+class _StoreFalseAction(_StoreConstAction):
+
+    def __init__(self,
+                 option_strings,
+                 dest,
+                 default=True,
+                 required=False,
+                 help=None):
+        super(_StoreFalseAction, self).__init__(
+            option_strings=option_strings,
+            dest=dest,
+            const=False,
+            default=default,
+            required=required,
+            help=help)
+
+
+class _AppendAction(Action):
+
+    def __init__(self,
+                 option_strings,
+                 dest,
+                 nargs=None,
+                 const=None,
+                 default=None,
+                 type=None,
+                 choices=None,
+                 required=False,
+                 help=None,
+                 metavar=None):
+        if nargs == 0:
+            raise ValueError('nargs for append actions must be > 0; if arg '
+                             'strings are not supplying the value to append, '
+                             'the append const action may be more appropriate')
+        if const is not None and nargs != OPTIONAL:
+            raise ValueError('nargs must be %r to supply const' % OPTIONAL)
+        super(_AppendAction, self).__init__(
+            option_strings=option_strings,
+            dest=dest,
+            nargs=nargs,
+            const=const,
+            default=default,
+            type=type,
+            choices=choices,
+            required=required,
+            help=help,
+            metavar=metavar)
+
+    def __call__(self, parser, namespace, values, option_string=None):
+        items = _copy.copy(_ensure_value(namespace, self.dest, []))
+        items.append(values)
+        setattr(namespace, self.dest, items)
+
+
+class _AppendConstAction(Action):
+
+    def __init__(self,
+                 option_strings,
+                 dest,
+                 const,
+                 default=None,
+                 required=False,
+                 help=None,
+                 metavar=None):
+        super(_AppendConstAction, self).__init__(
+            option_strings=option_strings,
+            dest=dest,
+            nargs=0,
+            const=const,
+            default=default,
+            required=required,
+            help=help,
+            metavar=metavar)
+
+    def __call__(self, parser, namespace, values, option_string=None):
+        items = _copy.copy(_ensure_value(namespace, self.dest, []))
+        items.append(self.const)
+        setattr(namespace, self.dest, items)
+
+
+class _CountAction(Action):
+
+    def __init__(self,
+                 option_strings,
+                 dest,
+                 default=None,
+                 required=False,
+                 help=None):
+        super(_CountAction, self).__init__(
+            option_strings=option_strings,
+            dest=dest,
+            nargs=0,
+            default=default,
+            required=required,
+            help=help)
+
+    def __call__(self, parser, namespace, values, option_string=None):
+        new_count = _ensure_value(namespace, self.dest, 0) + 1
+        setattr(namespace, self.dest, new_count)
+
+
+class _HelpAction(Action):
+
+    def __init__(self,
+                 option_strings,
+                 dest=SUPPRESS,
+                 default=SUPPRESS,
+                 help=None):
+        super(_HelpAction, self).__init__(
+            option_strings=option_strings,
+            dest=dest,
+            default=default,
+            nargs=0,
+            help=help)
+
+    def __call__(self, parser, namespace, values, option_string=None):
+        parser.print_help()
+        parser.exit()
+
+
+class _VersionAction(Action):
+
+    def __init__(self,
+                 option_strings,
+                 version=None,
+                 dest=SUPPRESS,
+                 default=SUPPRESS,
+                 help="show program's version number and exit"):
+        super(_VersionAction, self).__init__(
+            option_strings=option_strings,
+            dest=dest,
+            default=default,
+            nargs=0,
+            help=help)
+        self.version = version
+
+    def __call__(self, parser, namespace, values, option_string=None):
+        version = self.version
+        if version is None:
+            version = parser.version
+        formatter = parser._get_formatter()
+        formatter.add_text(version)
+        parser.exit(message=formatter.format_help())
+
+
+class _SubParsersAction(Action):
+
+    class _ChoicesPseudoAction(Action):
+
+        def __init__(self, name, help):
+            sup = super(_SubParsersAction._ChoicesPseudoAction, self)
+            sup.__init__(option_strings=[], dest=name, help=help)
+
+    def __init__(self,
+                 option_strings,
+                 prog,
+                 parser_class,
+                 dest=SUPPRESS,
+                 help=None,
+                 metavar=None):
+
+        self._prog_prefix = prog
+        self._parser_class = parser_class
+        self._name_parser_map = _collections.OrderedDict()
+        self._choices_actions = []
+
+        super(_SubParsersAction, self).__init__(
+            option_strings=option_strings,
+            dest=dest,
+            nargs=PARSER,
+            choices=self._name_parser_map,
+            help=help,
+            metavar=metavar)
+
+    def add_parser(self, name, **kwargs):
+        # set prog from the existing prefix
+        if kwargs.get('prog') is None:
+            kwargs['prog'] = '%s %s' % (self._prog_prefix, name)
+
+        # create a pseudo-action to hold the choice help
+        if 'help' in kwargs:
+            help = kwargs.pop('help')
+            choice_action = self._ChoicesPseudoAction(name, help)
+            self._choices_actions.append(choice_action)
+
+        # create the parser and add it to the map
+        parser = self._parser_class(**kwargs)
+        self._name_parser_map[name] = parser
+        return parser
+
+    def _get_subactions(self):
+        return self._choices_actions
+
+    def __call__(self, parser, namespace, values, option_string=None):
+        parser_name = values[0]
+        arg_strings = values[1:]
+
+        # set the parser name if requested
+        if self.dest is not SUPPRESS:
+            setattr(namespace, self.dest, parser_name)
+
+        # select the parser
+        try:
+            parser = self._name_parser_map[parser_name]
+        except KeyError:
+            tup = parser_name, ', '.join(self._name_parser_map)
+            msg = _('unknown parser %r (choices: %s)') % tup
+            raise ArgumentError(self, msg)
+
+        # parse all the remaining options into the namespace
+        # store any unrecognized options on the object, so that the top
+        # level parser can decide what to do with them
+        namespace, arg_strings = parser.parse_known_args(arg_strings, namespace)
+        if arg_strings:
+            vars(namespace).setdefault(_UNRECOGNIZED_ARGS_ATTR, [])
+            getattr(namespace, _UNRECOGNIZED_ARGS_ATTR).extend(arg_strings)
+
+
+# ==============
+# Type classes
+# ==============
+
+class FileType(object):
+    """Factory for creating file object types
+
+    Instances of FileType are typically passed as type= arguments to the
+    ArgumentParser add_argument() method.
+
+    Keyword Arguments:
+        - mode -- A string indicating how the file is to be opened. Accepts the
+            same values as the builtin open() function.
+        - bufsize -- The file's desired buffer size. Accepts the same values as
+            the builtin open() function.
+    """
+
+    def __init__(self, mode='r', bufsize=-1):
+        self._mode = mode
+        self._bufsize = bufsize
+
+    def __call__(self, string):
+        # the special argument "-" means sys.std{in,out}
+        if string == '-':
+            if 'r' in self._mode:
+                return _sys.stdin
+            elif 'w' in self._mode:
+                return _sys.stdout
+            else:
+                msg = _('argument "-" with mode %r') % self._mode
+                raise ValueError(msg)
+
+        # all other arguments are used as file names
+        try:
+            return open(string, self._mode, self._bufsize)
+        except IOError, e:
+            message = _("can't open '%s': %s")
+            raise ArgumentTypeError(message % (string, e))
+
+    def __repr__(self):
+        args = self._mode, self._bufsize
+        args_str = ', '.join(repr(arg) for arg in args if arg != -1)
+        return '%s(%s)' % (type(self).__name__, args_str)
+
+# ===========================
+# Optional and Positional Parsing
+# ===========================
+
+class Namespace(_AttributeHolder):
+    """Simple object for storing attributes.
+
+    Implements equality by attribute names and values, and provides a simple
+    string representation.
+    """
+
+    def __init__(self, **kwargs):
+        for name in kwargs:
+            setattr(self, name, kwargs[name])
+
+    __hash__ = None
+
+    def __eq__(self, other):
+        return vars(self) == vars(other)
+
+    def __ne__(self, other):
+        return not (self == other)
+
+    def __contains__(self, key):
+        return key in self.__dict__
+
+
+class _ActionsContainer(object):
+
+    def __init__(self,
+                 description,
+                 prefix_chars,
+                 argument_default,
+                 conflict_handler):
+        super(_ActionsContainer, self).__init__()
+
+        self.description = description
+        self.argument_default = argument_default
+        self.prefix_chars = prefix_chars
+        self.conflict_handler = conflict_handler
+
+        # set up registries
+        self._registries = {}
+
+        # register actions
+        self.register('action', None, _StoreAction)
+        self.register('action', 'store', _StoreAction)
+        self.register('action', 'store_const', _StoreConstAction)
+        self.register('action', 'store_true', _StoreTrueAction)
+        self.register('action', 'store_false', _StoreFalseAction)
+        self.register('action', 'append', _AppendAction)
+        self.register('action', 'append_const', _AppendConstAction)
+        self.register('action', 'count', _CountAction)
+        self.register('action', 'help', _HelpAction)
+        self.register('action', 'version', _VersionAction)
+        self.register('action', 'parsers', _SubParsersAction)
+
+        # raise an exception if the conflict handler is invalid
+        self._get_handler()
+
+        # action storage
+        self._actions = []
+        self._option_string_actions = {}
+
+        # groups
+        self._action_groups = []
+        self._mutually_exclusive_groups = []
+
+        # defaults storage
+        self._defaults = {}
+
+        # determines whether an "option" looks like a negative number
+        self._negative_number_matcher = _re.compile(r'^-\d+$|^-\d*\.\d+$')
+
+        # whether or not there are any optionals that look like negative
+        # numbers -- uses a list so it can be shared and edited
+        self._has_negative_number_optionals = []
+
+    # ====================
+    # Registration methods
+    # ====================
+    def register(self, registry_name, value, object):
+        registry = self._registries.setdefault(registry_name, {})
+        registry[value] = object
+
+    def _registry_get(self, registry_name, value, default=None):
+        return self._registries[registry_name].get(value, default)
+
+    # ==================================
+    # Namespace default accessor methods
+    # ==================================
+    def set_defaults(self, **kwargs):
+        self._defaults.update(kwargs)
+
+        # if these defaults match any existing arguments, replace
+        # the previous default on the object with the new one
+        for action in self._actions:
+            if action.dest in kwargs:
+                action.default = kwargs[action.dest]
+
+    def get_default(self, dest):
+        for action in self._actions:
+            if action.dest == dest and action.default is not None:
+                return action.default
+        return self._defaults.get(dest, None)
+
+
+    # =======================
+    # Adding argument actions
+    # =======================
+    def add_argument(self, *args, **kwargs):
+        """
+        add_argument(dest, ..., name=value, ...)
+        add_argument(option_string, option_string, ..., name=value, ...)
+        """
+
+        # if no positional args are supplied or only one is supplied and
+        # it doesn't look like an option string, parse a positional
+        # argument
+        chars = self.prefix_chars
+        if not args or len(args) == 1 and args[0][0] not in chars:
+            if args and 'dest' in kwargs:
+                raise ValueError('dest supplied twice for positional argument')
+            kwargs = self._get_positional_kwargs(*args, **kwargs)
+
+        # otherwise, we're adding an optional argument
+        else:
+            kwargs = self._get_optional_kwargs(*args, **kwargs)
+
+        # if no default was supplied, use the parser-level default
+        if 'default' not in kwargs:
+            dest = kwargs['dest']
+            if dest in self._defaults:
+                kwargs['default'] = self._defaults[dest]
+            elif self.argument_default is not None:
+                kwargs['default'] = self.argument_default
+
+        # create the action object, and add it to the parser
+        action_class = self._pop_action_class(kwargs)
+        if not _callable(action_class):
+            raise ValueError('unknown action "%s"' % (action_class,))
+        action = action_class(**kwargs)
+
+        # raise an error if the action type is not callable
+        type_func = self._registry_get('type', action.type, action.type)
+        if not _callable(type_func):
+            raise ValueError('%r is not callable' % (type_func,))
+
+        # raise an error if the metavar does not match the type
+        if hasattr(self, "_get_formatter"):
+            try:
+                self._get_formatter()._format_args(action, None)
+            except TypeError:
+                raise ValueError("length of metavar tuple does not match nargs")
+
+        return self._add_action(action)
+
+    def add_argument_group(self, *args, **kwargs):
+        group = _ArgumentGroup(self, *args, **kwargs)
+        self._action_groups.append(group)
+        return group
+
+    def add_mutually_exclusive_group(self, **kwargs):
+        group = _MutuallyExclusiveGroup(self, **kwargs)
+        self._mutually_exclusive_groups.append(group)
+        return group
+
+    def _add_action(self, action):
+        # resolve any conflicts
+        self._check_conflict(action)
+
+        # add to actions list
+        self._actions.append(action)
+        action.container = self
+
+        # index the action by any option strings it has
+        for option_string in action.option_strings:
+            self._option_string_actions[option_string] = action
+
+        # set the flag if any option strings look like negative numbers
+        for option_string in action.option_strings:
+            if self._negative_number_matcher.match(option_string):
+                if not self._has_negative_number_optionals:
+                    self._has_negative_number_optionals.append(True)
+
+        # return the created action
+        return action
+
+    def _remove_action(self, action):
+        self._actions.remove(action)
+
+    def _add_container_actions(self, container):
+        # collect groups by titles
+        title_group_map = {}
+        for group in self._action_groups:
+            if group.title in title_group_map:
+                msg = _('cannot merge actions - two groups are named %r')
+                raise ValueError(msg % (group.title))
+            title_group_map[group.title] = group
+
+        # map each action to its group
+        group_map = {}
+        for group in container._action_groups:
+
+            # if a group with the title exists, use that, otherwise
+            # create a new group matching the container's group
+            if group.title not in title_group_map:
+                title_group_map[group.title] = self.add_argument_group(
+                    title=group.title,
+                    description=group.description,
+                    conflict_handler=group.conflict_handler)
+
+            # map the actions to their new group
+            for action in group._group_actions:
+                group_map[action] = title_group_map[group.title]
+
+        # add container's mutually exclusive groups
+        # NOTE: if add_mutually_exclusive_group ever gains title= and
+        # description= then this code will need to be expanded as above
+        for group in container._mutually_exclusive_groups:
+            mutex_group = self.add_mutually_exclusive_group(
+                required=group.required)
+
+            # map the actions to their new mutex group
+            for action in group._group_actions:
+                group_map[action] = mutex_group
+
+        # add all actions to this container or their group
+        for action in container._actions:
+            group_map.get(action, self)._add_action(action)
+
+    def _get_positional_kwargs(self, dest, **kwargs):
+        # make sure required is not specified
+        if 'required' in kwargs:
+            msg = _("'required' is an invalid argument for positionals")
+            raise TypeError(msg)
+
+        # mark positional arguments as required if at least one is
+        # always required
+        if kwargs.get('nargs') not in [OPTIONAL, ZERO_OR_MORE]:
+            kwargs['required'] = True
+        if kwargs.get('nargs') == ZERO_OR_MORE and 'default' not in kwargs:
+            kwargs['required'] = True
+
+        # return the keyword arguments with no option strings
+        return dict(kwargs, dest=dest, option_strings=[])
+
+    def _get_optional_kwargs(self, *args, **kwargs):
+        # determine short and long option strings
+        option_strings = []
+        long_option_strings = []
+        for option_string in args:
+            # error on strings that don't start with an appropriate prefix
+            if not option_string[0] in self.prefix_chars:
+                msg = _('invalid option string %r: '
+                        'must start with a character %r')
+                tup = option_string, self.prefix_chars
+                raise ValueError(msg % tup)
+
+            # strings starting with two prefix characters are long options
+            option_strings.append(option_string)
+            if option_string[0] in self.prefix_chars:
+                if len(option_string) > 1:
+                    if option_string[1] in self.prefix_chars:
+                        long_option_strings.append(option_string)
+
+        # infer destination, '--foo-bar' -> 'foo_bar' and '-x' -> 'x'
+        dest = kwargs.pop('dest', None)
+        if dest is None:
+            if long_option_strings:
+                dest_option_string = long_option_strings[0]
+            else:
+                dest_option_string = option_strings[0]
+            dest = dest_option_string.lstrip(self.prefix_chars)
+            if not dest:
+                msg = _('dest= is required for options like %r')
+                raise ValueError(msg % option_string)
+            dest = dest.replace('-', '_')
+
+        # return the updated keyword arguments
+        return dict(kwargs, dest=dest, option_strings=option_strings)
+
+    def _pop_action_class(self, kwargs, default=None):
+        action = kwargs.pop('action', default)
+        return self._registry_get('action', action, action)
+
+    def _get_handler(self):
+        # determine function from conflict handler string
+        handler_func_name = '_handle_conflict_%s' % self.conflict_handler
+        try:
+            return getattr(self, handler_func_name)
+        except AttributeError:
+            msg = _('invalid conflict_resolution value: %r')
+            raise ValueError(msg % self.conflict_handler)
+
+    def _check_conflict(self, action):
+
+        # find all options that conflict with this option
+        confl_optionals = []
+        for option_string in action.option_strings:
+            if option_string in self._option_string_actions:
+                confl_optional = self._option_string_actions[option_string]
+                confl_optionals.append((option_string, confl_optional))
+
+        # resolve any conflicts
+        if confl_optionals:
+            conflict_handler = self._get_handler()
+            conflict_handler(action, confl_optionals)
+
+    def _handle_conflict_error(self, action, conflicting_actions):
+        message = _('conflicting option string(s): %s')
+        conflict_string = ', '.join([option_string
+                                     for option_string, action
+                                     in conflicting_actions])
+        raise ArgumentError(action, message % conflict_string)
+
+    def _handle_conflict_resolve(self, action, conflicting_actions):
+
+        # remove all conflicting options
+        for option_string, action in conflicting_actions:
+
+            # remove the conflicting option
+            action.option_strings.remove(option_string)
+            self._option_string_actions.pop(option_string, None)
+
+            # if the option now has no option string, remove it from the
+            # container holding it
+            if not action.option_strings:
+                action.container._remove_action(action)
+
+
+class _ArgumentGroup(_ActionsContainer):
+
+    def __init__(self, container, title=None, description=None, **kwargs):
+        # add any missing keyword arguments by checking the container
+        update = kwargs.setdefault
+        update('conflict_handler', container.conflict_handler)
+        update('prefix_chars', container.prefix_chars)
+        update('argument_default', container.argument_default)
+        super_init = super(_ArgumentGroup, self).__init__
+        super_init(description=description, **kwargs)
+
+        # group attributes
+        self.title = title
+        self._group_actions = []
+
+        # share most attributes with the container
+        self._registries = container._registries
+        self._actions = container._actions
+        self._option_string_actions = container._option_string_actions
+        self._defaults = container._defaults
+        self._has_negative_number_optionals = \
+            container._has_negative_number_optionals
+        self._mutually_exclusive_groups = container._mutually_exclusive_groups
+
+    def _add_action(self, action):
+        action = super(_ArgumentGroup, self)._add_action(action)
+        self._group_actions.append(action)
+        return action
+
+    def _remove_action(self, action):
+        super(_ArgumentGroup, self)._remove_action(action)
+        self._group_actions.remove(action)
+
+
+class _MutuallyExclusiveGroup(_ArgumentGroup):
+
+    def __init__(self, container, required=False):
+        super(_MutuallyExclusiveGroup, self).__init__(container)
+        self.required = required
+        self._container = container
+
+    def _add_action(self, action):
+        if action.required:
+            msg = _('mutually exclusive arguments must be optional')
+            raise ValueError(msg)
+        action = self._container._add_action(action)
+        self._group_actions.append(action)
+        return action
+
+    def _remove_action(self, action):
+        self._container._remove_action(action)
+        self._group_actions.remove(action)
+
+
+class ArgumentParser(_AttributeHolder, _ActionsContainer):
+    """Object for parsing command line strings into Python objects.
+
+    Keyword Arguments:
+        - prog -- The name of the program (default: sys.argv[0])
+        - usage -- A usage message (default: auto-generated from arguments)
+        - description -- A description of what the program does
+        - epilog -- Text following the argument descriptions
+        - parents -- Parsers whose arguments should be copied into this one
+        - formatter_class -- HelpFormatter class for printing help messages
+        - prefix_chars -- Characters that prefix optional arguments
+        - fromfile_prefix_chars -- Characters that prefix files containing
+            additional arguments
+        - argument_default -- The default value for all arguments
+        - conflict_handler -- String indicating how to handle conflicts
+        - add_help -- Add a -h/-help option
+    """
+
+    def __init__(self,
+                 prog=None,
+                 usage=None,
+                 description=None,
+                 epilog=None,
+                 version=None,
+                 parents=[],
+                 formatter_class=HelpFormatter,
+                 prefix_chars='-',
+                 fromfile_prefix_chars=None,
+                 argument_default=None,
+                 conflict_handler='error',
+                 add_help=True):
+
+        if version is not None:
+            import warnings
+            warnings.warn(
+                """The "version" argument to ArgumentParser is deprecated. """
+                """Please use """
+                """"add_argument(..., action='version', version="N", ...)" """
+                """instead""", DeprecationWarning)
+
+        superinit = super(ArgumentParser, self).__init__
+        superinit(description=description,
+                  prefix_chars=prefix_chars,
+                  argument_default=argument_default,
+                  conflict_handler=conflict_handler)
+
+        # default setting for prog
+        if prog is None:
+            prog = _os.path.basename(_sys.argv[0])
+
+        self.prog = prog
+        self.usage = usage
+        self.epilog = epilog
+        self.version = version
+        self.formatter_class = formatter_class
+        self.fromfile_prefix_chars = fromfile_prefix_chars
+        self.add_help = add_help
+
+        add_group = self.add_argument_group
+        self._positionals = add_group(_('positional arguments'))
+        self._optionals = add_group(_('optional arguments'))
+        self._subparsers = None
+
+        # register types
+        def identity(string):
+            return string
+        self.register('type', None, identity)
+
+        # add help and version arguments if necessary
+        # (using explicit default to override global argument_default)
+        if '-' in prefix_chars:
+            default_prefix = '-'
+        else:
+            default_prefix = prefix_chars[0]
+        if self.add_help:
+            self.add_argument(
+                default_prefix+'h', default_prefix*2+'help',
+                action='help', default=SUPPRESS,
+                help=_('show this help message and exit'))
+        if self.version:
+            self.add_argument(
+                default_prefix+'v', default_prefix*2+'version',
+                action='version', default=SUPPRESS,
+                version=self.version,
+                help=_("show program's version number and exit"))
+
+        # add parent arguments and defaults
+        for parent in parents:
+            self._add_container_actions(parent)
+            try:
+                defaults = parent._defaults
+            except AttributeError:
+                pass
+            else:
+                self._defaults.update(defaults)
+
+    # =======================
+    # Pretty __repr__ methods
+    # =======================
+    def _get_kwargs(self):
+        names = [
+            'prog',
+            'usage',
+            'description',
+            'version',
+            'formatter_class',
+            'conflict_handler',
+            'add_help',
+        ]
+        return [(name, getattr(self, name)) for name in names]
+
+    # ==================================
+    # Optional/Positional adding methods
+    # ==================================
+    def add_subparsers(self, **kwargs):
+        if self._subparsers is not None:
+            self.error(_('cannot have multiple subparser arguments'))
+
+        # add the parser class to the arguments if it's not present
+        kwargs.setdefault('parser_class', type(self))
+
+        if 'title' in kwargs or 'description' in kwargs:
+            title = _(kwargs.pop('title', 'subcommands'))
+            description = _(kwargs.pop('description', None))
+            self._subparsers = self.add_argument_group(title, description)
+        else:
+            self._subparsers = self._positionals
+
+        # prog defaults to the usage message of this parser, skipping
+        # optional arguments and with no "usage:" prefix
+        if kwargs.get('prog') is None:
+            formatter = self._get_formatter()
+            positionals = self._get_positional_actions()
+            groups = self._mutually_exclusive_groups
+            formatter.add_usage(self.usage, positionals, groups, '')
+            kwargs['prog'] = formatter.format_help().strip()
+
+        # create the parsers action and add it to the positionals list
+        parsers_class = self._pop_action_class(kwargs, 'parsers')
+        action = parsers_class(option_strings=[], **kwargs)
+        self._subparsers._add_action(action)
+
+        # return the created parsers action
+        return action
+
+    def _add_action(self, action):
+        if action.option_strings:
+            self._optionals._add_action(action)
+        else:
+            self._positionals._add_action(action)
+        return action
+
+    def _get_optional_actions(self):
+        return [action
+                for action in self._actions
+                if action.option_strings]
+
+    def _get_positional_actions(self):
+        return [action
+                for action in self._actions
+                if not action.option_strings]
+
+    # =====================================
+    # Command line argument parsing methods
+    # =====================================
+    def parse_args(self, args=None, namespace=None):
+        args, argv = self.parse_known_args(args, namespace)
+        if argv:
+            msg = _('unrecognized arguments: %s')
+            self.error(msg % ' '.join(argv))
+        return args
+
+    def parse_known_args(self, args=None, namespace=None):
+        # args default to the system args
+        if args is None:
+            args = _sys.argv[1:]
+
+        # default Namespace built from parser defaults
+        if namespace is None:
+            namespace = Namespace()
+
+        # add any action defaults that aren't present
+        for action in self._actions:
+            if action.dest is not SUPPRESS:
+                if not hasattr(namespace, action.dest):
+                    if action.default is not SUPPRESS:
+                        default = action.default
+                        if isinstance(action.default, basestring):
+                            default = self._get_value(action, default)
+                        setattr(namespace, action.dest, default)
+
+        # add any parser defaults that aren't present
+        for dest in self._defaults:
+            if not hasattr(namespace, dest):
+                setattr(namespace, dest, self._defaults[dest])
+
+        # parse the arguments and exit if there are any errors
+        try:
+            namespace, args = self._parse_known_args(args, namespace)
+            if hasattr(namespace, _UNRECOGNIZED_ARGS_ATTR):
+                args.extend(getattr(namespace, _UNRECOGNIZED_ARGS_ATTR))
+                delattr(namespace, _UNRECOGNIZED_ARGS_ATTR)
+            return namespace, args
+        except ArgumentError:
+            err = _sys.exc_info()[1]
+            self.error(str(err))
+
+    def _parse_known_args(self, arg_strings, namespace):
+        # replace arg strings that are file references
+        if self.fromfile_prefix_chars is not None:
+            arg_strings = self._read_args_from_files(arg_strings)
+
+        # map all mutually exclusive arguments to the other arguments
+        # they can't occur with
+        action_conflicts = {}
+        for mutex_group in self._mutually_exclusive_groups:
+            group_actions = mutex_group._group_actions
+            for i, mutex_action in enumerate(mutex_group._group_actions):
+                conflicts = action_conflicts.setdefault(mutex_action, [])
+                conflicts.extend(group_actions[:i])
+                conflicts.extend(group_actions[i + 1:])
+
+        # find all option indices, and determine the arg_string_pattern
+        # which has an 'O' if there is an option at an index,
+        # an 'A' if there is an argument, or a '-' if there is a '--'
+        option_string_indices = {}
+        arg_string_pattern_parts = []
+        arg_strings_iter = iter(arg_strings)
+        for i, arg_string in enumerate(arg_strings_iter):
+
+            # all args after -- are non-options
+            if arg_string == '--':
+                arg_string_pattern_parts.append('-')
+                for arg_string in arg_strings_iter:
+                    arg_string_pattern_parts.append('A')
+
+            # otherwise, add the arg to the arg strings
+            # and note the index if it was an option
+            else:
+                option_tuple = self._parse_optional(arg_string)
+                if option_tuple is None:
+                    pattern = 'A'
+                else:
+                    option_string_indices[i] = option_tuple
+                    pattern = 'O'
+                arg_string_pattern_parts.append(pattern)
+
+        # join the pieces together to form the pattern
+        arg_strings_pattern = ''.join(arg_string_pattern_parts)
+
+        # converts arg strings to the appropriate and then takes the action
+        seen_actions = set()
+        seen_non_default_actions = set()
+
+        def take_action(action, argument_strings, option_string=None):
+            seen_actions.add(action)
+            argument_values = self._get_values(action, argument_strings)
+
+            # error if this argument is not allowed with other previously
+            # seen arguments, assuming that actions that use the default
+            # value don't really count as "present"
+            if argument_values is not action.default:
+                seen_non_default_actions.add(action)
+                for conflict_action in action_conflicts.get(action, []):
+                    if conflict_action in seen_non_default_actions:
+                        msg = _('not allowed with argument %s')
+                        action_name = _get_action_name(conflict_action)
+                        raise ArgumentError(action, msg % action_name)
+
+            # take the action if we didn't receive a SUPPRESS value
+            # (e.g. from a default)
+            if argument_values is not SUPPRESS:
+                action(self, namespace, argument_values, option_string)
+
+        # function to convert arg_strings into an optional action
+        def consume_optional(start_index):
+
+            # get the optional identified at this index
+            option_tuple = option_string_indices[start_index]
+            action, option_string, explicit_arg = option_tuple
+
+            # identify additional optionals in the same arg string
+            # (e.g. -xyz is the same as -x -y -z if no args are required)
+            match_argument = self._match_argument
+            action_tuples = []
+            while True:
+
+                # if we found no optional action, skip it
+                if action is None:
+                    extras.append(arg_strings[start_index])
+                    return start_index + 1
+
+                # if there is an explicit argument, try to match the
+                # optional's string arguments to only this
+                if explicit_arg is not None:
+                    arg_count = match_argument(action, 'A')
+
+                    # if the action is a single-dash option and takes no
+                    # arguments, try to parse more single-dash options out
+                    # of the tail of the option string
+                    chars = self.prefix_chars
+                    if arg_count == 0 and option_string[1] not in chars:
+                        action_tuples.append((action, [], option_string))
+                        char = option_string[0]
+                        option_string = char + explicit_arg[0]
+                        new_explicit_arg = explicit_arg[1:] or None
+                        optionals_map = self._option_string_actions
+                        if option_string in optionals_map:
+                            action = optionals_map[option_string]
+                            explicit_arg = new_explicit_arg
+                        else:
+                            msg = _('ignored explicit argument %r')
+                            raise ArgumentError(action, msg % explicit_arg)
+
+                    # if the action expect exactly one argument, we've
+                    # successfully matched the option; exit the loop
+                    elif arg_count == 1:
+                        stop = start_index + 1
+                        args = [explicit_arg]
+                        action_tuples.append((action, args, option_string))
+                        break
+
+                    # error if a double-dash option did not use the
+                    # explicit argument
+                    else:
+                        msg = _('ignored explicit argument %r')
+                        raise ArgumentError(action, msg % explicit_arg)
+
+                # if there is no explicit argument, try to match the
+                # optional's string arguments with the following strings
+                # if successful, exit the loop
+                else:
+                    start = start_index + 1
+                    selected_patterns = arg_strings_pattern[start:]
+                    arg_count = match_argument(action, selected_patterns)
+                    stop = start + arg_count
+                    args = arg_strings[start:stop]
+                    action_tuples.append((action, args, option_string))
+                    break
+
+            # add the Optional to the list and return the index at which
+            # the Optional's string args stopped
+            assert action_tuples
+            for action, args, option_string in action_tuples:
+                take_action(action, args, option_string)
+            return stop
+
+        # the list of Positionals left to be parsed; this is modified
+        # by consume_positionals()
+        positionals = self._get_positional_actions()
+
+        # function to convert arg_strings into positional actions
+        def consume_positionals(start_index):
+            # match as many Positionals as possible
+            match_partial = self._match_arguments_partial
+            selected_pattern = arg_strings_pattern[start_index:]
+            arg_counts = match_partial(positionals, selected_pattern)
+
+            # slice off the appropriate arg strings for each Positional
+            # and add the Positional and its args to the list
+            for action, arg_count in zip(positionals, arg_counts):
+                args = arg_strings[start_index: start_index + arg_count]
+                start_index += arg_count
+                take_action(action, args)
+
+            # slice off the Positionals that we just parsed and return the
+            # index at which the Positionals' string args stopped
+            positionals[:] = positionals[len(arg_counts):]
+            return start_index
+
+        # consume Positionals and Optionals alternately, until we have
+        # passed the last option string
+        extras = []
+        start_index = 0
+        if option_string_indices:
+            max_option_string_index = max(option_string_indices)
+        else:
+            max_option_string_index = -1
+        while start_index <= max_option_string_index:
+
+            # consume any Positionals preceding the next option
+            next_option_string_index = min([
+                index
+                for index in option_string_indices
+                if index >= start_index])
+            if start_index != next_option_string_index:
+                positionals_end_index = consume_positionals(start_index)
+
+                # only try to parse the next optional if we didn't consume
+                # the option string during the positionals parsing
+                if positionals_end_index > start_index:
+                    start_index = positionals_end_index
+                    continue
+                else:
+                    start_index = positionals_end_index
+
+            # if we consumed all the positionals we could and we're not
+            # at the index of an option string, there were extra arguments
+            if start_index not in option_string_indices:
+                strings = arg_strings[start_index:next_option_string_index]
+                extras.extend(strings)
+                start_index = next_option_string_index
+
+            # consume the next optional and any arguments for it
+            start_index = consume_optional(start_index)
+
+        # consume any positionals following the last Optional
+        stop_index = consume_positionals(start_index)
+
+        # if we didn't consume all the argument strings, there were extras
+        extras.extend(arg_strings[stop_index:])
+
+        # if we didn't use all the Positional objects, there were too few
+        # arg strings supplied.
+        if positionals:
+            self.error(_('too few arguments'))
+
+        # make sure all required actions were present
+        for action in self._actions:
+            if action.required:
+                if action not in seen_actions:
+                    name = _get_action_name(action)
+                    self.error(_('argument %s is required') % name)
+
+        # make sure all required groups had one option present
+        for group in self._mutually_exclusive_groups:
+            if group.required:
+                for action in group._group_actions:
+                    if action in seen_non_default_actions:
+                        break
+
+                # if no actions were used, report the error
+                else:
+                    names = [_get_action_name(action)
+                             for action in group._group_actions
+                             if action.help is not SUPPRESS]
+                    msg = _('one of the arguments %s is required')
+                    self.error(msg % ' '.join(names))
+
+        # return the updated namespace and the extra arguments
+        return namespace, extras
+
+    def _read_args_from_files(self, arg_strings):
+        # expand arguments referencing files
+        new_arg_strings = []
+        for arg_string in arg_strings:
+
+            # for regular arguments, just add them back into the list
+            if arg_string[0] not in self.fromfile_prefix_chars:
+                new_arg_strings.append(arg_string)
+
+            # replace arguments referencing files with the file content
+            else:
+                try:
+                    args_file = open(arg_string[1:])
+                    try:
+                        arg_strings = []
+                        for arg_line in args_file.read().splitlines():
+                            for arg in self.convert_arg_line_to_args(arg_line):
+                                arg_strings.append(arg)
+                        arg_strings = self._read_args_from_files(arg_strings)
+                        new_arg_strings.extend(arg_strings)
+                    finally:
+                        args_file.close()
+                except IOError:
+                    err = _sys.exc_info()[1]
+                    self.error(str(err))
+
+        # return the modified argument list
+        return new_arg_strings
+
+    def convert_arg_line_to_args(self, arg_line):
+        return [arg_line]
+
+    def _match_argument(self, action, arg_strings_pattern):
+        # match the pattern for this action to the arg strings
+        nargs_pattern = self._get_nargs_pattern(action)
+        match = _re.match(nargs_pattern, arg_strings_pattern)
+
+        # raise an exception if we weren't able to find a match
+        if match is None:
+            nargs_errors = {
+                None: _('expected one argument'),
+                OPTIONAL: _('expected at most one argument'),
+                ONE_OR_MORE: _('expected at least one argument'),
+            }
+            default = _('expected %s argument(s)') % action.nargs
+            msg = nargs_errors.get(action.nargs, default)
+            raise ArgumentError(action, msg)
+
+        # return the number of arguments matched
+        return len(match.group(1))
+
+    def _match_arguments_partial(self, actions, arg_strings_pattern):
+        # progressively shorten the actions list by slicing off the
+        # final actions until we find a match
+        result = []
+        for i in range(len(actions), 0, -1):
+            actions_slice = actions[:i]
+            pattern = ''.join([self._get_nargs_pattern(action)
+                               for action in actions_slice])
+            match = _re.match(pattern, arg_strings_pattern)
+            if match is not None:
+                result.extend([len(string) for string in match.groups()])
+                break
+
+        # return the list of arg string counts
+        return result
+
+    def _parse_optional(self, arg_string):
+        # if it's an empty string, it was meant to be a positional
+        if not arg_string:
+            return None
+
+        # if it doesn't start with a prefix, it was meant to be positional
+        if not arg_string[0] in self.prefix_chars:
+            return None
+
+        # if the option string is present in the parser, return the action
+        if arg_string in self._option_string_actions:
+            action = self._option_string_actions[arg_string]
+            return action, arg_string, None
+
+        # if it's just a single character, it was meant to be positional
+        if len(arg_string) == 1:
+            return None
+
+        # if the option string before the "=" is present, return the action
+        if '=' in arg_string:
+            option_string, explicit_arg = arg_string.split('=', 1)
+            if option_string in self._option_string_actions:
+                action = self._option_string_actions[option_string]
+                return action, option_string, explicit_arg
+
+        # search through all possible prefixes of the option string
+        # and all actions in the parser for possible interpretations
+        option_tuples = self._get_option_tuples(arg_string)
+
+        # if multiple actions match, the option string was ambiguous
+        if len(option_tuples) > 1:
+            options = ', '.join([option_string
+                for action, option_string, explicit_arg in option_tuples])
+            tup = arg_string, options
+            self.error(_('ambiguous option: %s could match %s') % tup)
+
+        # if exactly one action matched, this segmentation is good,
+        # so return the parsed action
+        elif len(option_tuples) == 1:
+            option_tuple, = option_tuples
+            return option_tuple
+
+        # if it was not found as an option, but it looks like a negative
+        # number, it was meant to be positional
+        # unless there are negative-number-like options
+        if self._negative_number_matcher.match(arg_string):
+            if not self._has_negative_number_optionals:
+                return None
+
+        # if it contains a space, it was meant to be a positional
+        if ' ' in arg_string:
+            return None
+
+        # it was meant to be an optional but there is no such option
+        # in this parser (though it might be a valid option in a subparser)
+        return None, arg_string, None
+
+    def _get_option_tuples(self, option_string):
+        result = []
+
+        # option strings starting with two prefix characters are only
+        # split at the '='
+        chars = self.prefix_chars
+        if option_string[0] in chars and option_string[1] in chars:
+            if '=' in option_string:
+                option_prefix, explicit_arg = option_string.split('=', 1)
+            else:
+                option_prefix = option_string
+                explicit_arg = None
+            for option_string in self._option_string_actions:
+                if option_string.startswith(option_prefix):
+                    action = self._option_string_actions[option_string]
+                    tup = action, option_string, explicit_arg
+                    result.append(tup)
+
+        # single character options can be concatenated with their arguments
+        # but multiple character options always have to have their argument
+        # separate
+        elif option_string[0] in chars and option_string[1] not in chars:
+            option_prefix = option_string
+            explicit_arg = None
+            short_option_prefix = option_string[:2]
+            short_explicit_arg = option_string[2:]
+
+            for option_string in self._option_string_actions:
+                if option_string == short_option_prefix:
+                    action = self._option_string_actions[option_string]
+                    tup = action, option_string, short_explicit_arg
+                    result.append(tup)
+                elif option_string.startswith(option_prefix):
+                    action = self._option_string_actions[option_string]
+                    tup = action, option_string, explicit_arg
+                    result.append(tup)
+
+        # shouldn't ever get here
+        else:
+            self.error(_('unexpected option string: %s') % option_string)
+
+        # return the collected option tuples
+        return result
+
+    def _get_nargs_pattern(self, action):
+        # in all examples below, we have to allow for '--' args
+        # which are represented as '-' in the pattern
+        nargs = action.nargs
+
+        # the default (None) is assumed to be a single argument
+        if nargs is None:
+            nargs_pattern = '(-*A-*)'
+
+        # allow zero or one arguments
+        elif nargs == OPTIONAL:
+            nargs_pattern = '(-*A?-*)'
+
+        # allow zero or more arguments
+        elif nargs == ZERO_OR_MORE:
+            nargs_pattern = '(-*[A-]*)'
+
+        # allow one or more arguments
+        elif nargs == ONE_OR_MORE:
+            nargs_pattern = '(-*A[A-]*)'
+
+        # allow any number of options or arguments
+        elif nargs == REMAINDER:
+            nargs_pattern = '([-AO]*)'
+
+        # allow one argument followed by any number of options or arguments
+        elif nargs == PARSER:
+            nargs_pattern = '(-*A[-AO]*)'
+
+        # all others should be integers
+        else:
+            nargs_pattern = '(-*%s-*)' % '-*'.join('A' * nargs)
+
+        # if this is an optional action, -- is not allowed
+        if action.option_strings:
+            nargs_pattern = nargs_pattern.replace('-*', '')
+            nargs_pattern = nargs_pattern.replace('-', '')
+
+        # return the pattern
+        return nargs_pattern
+
+    # ========================
+    # Value conversion methods
+    # ========================
+    def _get_values(self, action, arg_strings):
+        # for everything but PARSER args, strip out '--'
+        if action.nargs not in [PARSER, REMAINDER]:
+            arg_strings = [s for s in arg_strings if s != '--']
+
+        # optional argument produces a default when not present
+        if not arg_strings and action.nargs == OPTIONAL:
+            if action.option_strings:
+                value = action.const
+            else:
+                value = action.default
+            if isinstance(value, basestring):
+                value = self._get_value(action, value)
+                self._check_value(action, value)
+
+        # when nargs='*' on a positional, if there were no command-line
+        # args, use the default if it is anything other than None
+        elif (not arg_strings and action.nargs == ZERO_OR_MORE and
+              not action.option_strings):
+            if action.default is not None:
+                value = action.default
+            else:
+                value = arg_strings
+            self._check_value(action, value)
+
+        # single argument or optional argument produces a single value
+        elif len(arg_strings) == 1 and action.nargs in [None, OPTIONAL]:
+            arg_string, = arg_strings
+            value = self._get_value(action, arg_string)
+            self._check_value(action, value)
+
+        # REMAINDER arguments convert all values, checking none
+        elif action.nargs == REMAINDER:
+            value = [self._get_value(action, v) for v in arg_strings]
+
+        # PARSER arguments convert all values, but check only the first
+        elif action.nargs == PARSER:
+            value = [self._get_value(action, v) for v in arg_strings]
+            self._check_value(action, value[0])
+
+        # all other types of nargs produce a list
+        else:
+            value = [self._get_value(action, v) for v in arg_strings]
+            for v in value:
+                self._check_value(action, v)
+
+        # return the converted value
+        return value
+
+    def _get_value(self, action, arg_string):
+        type_func = self._registry_get('type', action.type, action.type)
+        if not _callable(type_func):
+            msg = _('%r is not callable')
+            raise ArgumentError(action, msg % type_func)
+
+        # convert the value to the appropriate type
+        try:
+            result = type_func(arg_string)
+
+        # ArgumentTypeErrors indicate errors
+        except ArgumentTypeError:
+            name = getattr(action.type, '__name__', repr(action.type))
+            msg = str(_sys.exc_info()[1])
+            raise ArgumentError(action, msg)
+
+        # TypeErrors or ValueErrors also indicate errors
+        except (TypeError, ValueError):
+            name = getattr(action.type, '__name__', repr(action.type))
+            msg = _('invalid %s value: %r')
+            raise ArgumentError(action, msg % (name, arg_string))
+
+        # return the converted value
+        return result
+
+    def _check_value(self, action, value):
+        # converted value must be one of the choices (if specified)
+        if action.choices is not None and value not in action.choices:
+            tup = value, ', '.join(map(repr, action.choices))
+            msg = _('invalid choice: %r (choose from %s)') % tup
+            raise ArgumentError(action, msg)
+
+    # =======================
+    # Help-formatting methods
+    # =======================
+    def format_usage(self):
+        formatter = self._get_formatter()
+        formatter.add_usage(self.usage, self._actions,
+                            self._mutually_exclusive_groups)
+        return formatter.format_help()
+
+    def format_help(self):
+        formatter = self._get_formatter()
+
+        # usage
+        formatter.add_usage(self.usage, self._actions,
+                            self._mutually_exclusive_groups)
+
+        # description
+        formatter.add_text(self.description)
+
+        # positionals, optionals and user-defined groups
+        for action_group in self._action_groups:
+            formatter.start_section(action_group.title)
+            formatter.add_text(action_group.description)
+            formatter.add_arguments(action_group._group_actions)
+            formatter.end_section()
+
+        # epilog
+        formatter.add_text(self.epilog)
+
+        # determine help from format above
+        return formatter.format_help()
+
+    def format_version(self):
+        import warnings
+        warnings.warn(
+            'The format_version method is deprecated -- the "version" '
+            'argument to ArgumentParser is no longer supported.',
+            DeprecationWarning)
+        formatter = self._get_formatter()
+        formatter.add_text(self.version)
+        return formatter.format_help()
+
+    def _get_formatter(self):
+        return self.formatter_class(prog=self.prog)
+
+    # =====================
+    # Help-printing methods
+    # =====================
+    def print_usage(self, file=None):
+        if file is None:
+            file = _sys.stdout
+        self._print_message(self.format_usage(), file)
+
+    def print_help(self, file=None):
+        if file is None:
+            file = _sys.stdout
+        self._print_message(self.format_help(), file)
+
+    def print_version(self, file=None):
+        import warnings
+        warnings.warn(
+            'The print_version method is deprecated -- the "version" '
+            'argument to ArgumentParser is no longer supported.',
+            DeprecationWarning)
+        self._print_message(self.format_version(), file)
+
+    def _print_message(self, message, file=None):
+        if message:
+            if file is None:
+                file = _sys.stderr
+            file.write(message)
+
+    # ===============
+    # Exiting methods
+    # ===============
+    def exit(self, status=0, message=None):
+        if message:
+            self._print_message(message, _sys.stderr)
+        _sys.exit(status)
+
+    def error(self, message):
+        """error(message: string)
+
+        Prints a usage message incorporating the message to stderr and
+        exits.
+
+        If you override this in a subclass, it should not return -- it
+        should either exit or raise an exception.
+        """
+        self.print_usage(_sys.stderr)
+        self.exit(2, _('%s: error: %s\n') % (self.prog, message))
diff --git a/python/compat/automake.mk b/python/compat/automake.mk
new file mode 100644
index 0000000..8d393a2
--- /dev/null
+++ b/python/compat/automake.mk
@@ -0,0 +1,3 @@
+EXTRA_DIST += \
+	python/compat/uuid.py \
+	python/compat/argparse.py
diff --git a/xenserver/uuid.py b/python/compat/uuid.py
similarity index 100%
rename from xenserver/uuid.py
rename to python/compat/uuid.py
diff --git a/rhel/openvswitch.spec.in b/rhel/openvswitch.spec.in
index 9bd6b58..2cf9535 100644
--- a/rhel/openvswitch.spec.in
+++ b/rhel/openvswitch.spec.in
@@ -46,7 +46,8 @@ install -m 755 rhel/etc_logrotate.d_openvswitch \
 install -d -m 755 $RPM_BUILD_ROOT/usr/share/openvswitch/scripts
 install -m 755 rhel/usr_share_openvswitch_scripts_sysconfig.template \
     $RPM_BUILD_ROOT/usr/share/openvswitch/scripts/sysconfig.template
-install xenserver/uuid.py $RPM_BUILD_ROOT/usr/share/openvswitch/python
+install python/compat/uuid.py $RPM_BUILD_ROOT/usr/share/openvswitch/python
+install python/compat/argparse.py $RPM_BUILD_ROOT/usr/share/openvswitch/python
 
 # Get rid of stuff we don't want to make RPM happy.
 rm \
diff --git a/xenserver/README b/xenserver/README
index 60524de..a640fea 100644
--- a/xenserver/README
+++ b/xenserver/README
@@ -77,7 +77,7 @@ files are:
 
     usr_share_openvswitch_scripts_sysconfig.template
 
-        Template for Open vSwitch's /etc/sysconfig/openvswitch 
+        Template for Open vSwitch's /etc/sysconfig/openvswitch
         configuration file.
 
     usr_share_openvswitch_scripts_xen-bugtool-tc-class-show
@@ -89,7 +89,7 @@ files are:
     usr_lib_xsconsole_plugins-base_XSFeatureVSwitch.py
 
         xsconsole plugin to configure the pool-wide configuration keys
-        used to control Open vSwitch when integrated with Citrix 
+        used to control Open vSwitch when integrated with Citrix
         management tools.
 
     uuid.py
@@ -98,6 +98,12 @@ files are:
         Open vSwitch RPM because XenServer uses Python 2.4, which does
         not have uuid.py.
 
+    argparse.py
+
+        This is argparse.py from Python 2.7.  It is installed into the
+        Open vSwitch RPM because XenServer uses Python 2.4, which does
+        not have argparse.py.
+
 To install, build the Open vSwitch RPM with a command like this:
 
         rpmbuild -D "openvswitch_version $full_version" \
diff --git a/xenserver/automake.mk b/xenserver/automake.mk
index 033b46a..02fc65f 100644
--- a/xenserver/automake.mk
+++ b/xenserver/automake.mk
@@ -23,5 +23,4 @@ EXTRA_DIST += \
 	xenserver/opt_xensource_libexec_interface-reconfigure \
 	xenserver/usr_lib_xsconsole_plugins-base_XSFeatureVSwitch.py \
 	xenserver/usr_share_openvswitch_scripts_ovs-xapi-sync \
-	xenserver/usr_share_openvswitch_scripts_sysconfig.template \
-	xenserver/uuid.py
+	xenserver/usr_share_openvswitch_scripts_sysconfig.template
diff --git a/xenserver/openvswitch-xen.spec b/xenserver/openvswitch-xen.spec
index 4f1a006..5c50727 100644
--- a/xenserver/openvswitch-xen.spec
+++ b/xenserver/openvswitch-xen.spec
@@ -104,7 +104,8 @@ install -m 644 \
 
 install -d -m 755 $RPM_BUILD_ROOT/lib/modules/%{xen_version}/extra/openvswitch
 find datapath/linux -name *.ko -exec install -m 755  \{\} $RPM_BUILD_ROOT/lib/modules/%{xen_version}/extra/openvswitch \;
-install xenserver/uuid.py $RPM_BUILD_ROOT/usr/share/openvswitch/python
+install python/compat/uuid.py $RPM_BUILD_ROOT/usr/share/openvswitch/python
+install python/compat/argparse.py $RPM_BUILD_ROOT/usr/share/openvswitch/python
 
 install -d -m 755 $RPM_BUILD_ROOT/etc/xensource/bugtool
 mv $RPM_BUILD_ROOT/etc/openvswitch/bugtool-plugins $RPM_BUILD_ROOT/etc/xensource/bugtool
@@ -345,6 +346,7 @@ exit 0
 /usr/share/openvswitch/python/ovs/timeval.py
 /usr/share/openvswitch/python/ovs/util.py
 /usr/share/openvswitch/python/uuid.py
+/usr/share/openvswitch/python/argparse.py
 /usr/share/openvswitch/scripts/ovs-xapi-sync
 /usr/share/openvswitch/scripts/interface-reconfigure
 /usr/share/openvswitch/scripts/InterfaceReconfigure.py
-- 
1.7.6.1




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